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159 Cards in this Set

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Detritovores
eat dead things, recycle nutrients in the community (type of fungi)
absorption, exoenzymes
fungi exodigest, release exoenzymes into environment
decomposers
fungi that eat dead things, flies also decompose
symbionts
fungi that have a mutualistic association that benefits both species
lichens
fungi: cyanobacteria, green algae photosynthesis
mycelia
fungus tissue
hypha
mats of subterranian structure
septa
reproductive unit, where spores are (the underside of the mushroom)
chitin
animal-like proteins, hetertrophs
parasitic fungi (hyphae)
attack nematodes (ring worms!)
plasmogamy-karyogamy-meiosis-germainaition
make cycle (n,2n), sexual/asexual stages
germination of spores
seeds
yeast
unicellular; fungus used to make beer, wine, bread; ferments
are most fungi
uni or mulitcellular?
multicellular
Phlyogenetics
1) Chrytrids (loss off flagella) - oldest
2) Zygomycota
3) Ascomycota
4) Basidiomycota (mushrooms)
Fairy ring
mushrooms (fungus) surround decomposing tree and form a ring
Lichens (symbiosis; succession)
fungus interacts with either cyanobacteria or green algae; succession opens avenues for invasion of other organisms
Mycorrhizae
association of fungi with plants
Agriculture, medicine
penicillin attacks bacteria
T/F Some fungi have flagella
TRUE!
T/F THe karyogamous stage of fungi is haploid
FALSE!! (it is diploid)
What organism does Meffert work with?
Housefly
Animals
multicellular, heterotrophic (can't photosynthesize), eukaryotes (nucleus), no cell walls (only plants)
Animals have nervous and muscle tissue
protists have behavior, but no nervous system
Development:
Cleavage, blastula, gastrula
Zygote: egg + sperm, cleavage: bifercating into numberous cells
Blastula: Ball of cells
Gastrula: formulate complex tissue structure
Lavae, metemorphosis
holometabolis development - flies, maggot, pupil-adult
Phylogenetics: parazoans
porifera-early animals, no real structure
radiata
circular body structure
bilateria
fluctuating asymmetery; dorsal-top, ventral-bottom, anterior-head, posterior-back
evolution of body cavities:
acoelomates, pseudocoelomates, coelomates
sac within a sac;
acoelomates-without
pseudocoelomates-not quite
coelomates-tube within a tube
Trochophores
ciliate structures
Ecdysis
molting exoskeleton must molt off in order to get bigger: holo-laval-pupal-adult
T/F Roundworms are coelomates
FALSE! pseudocoelomates
Which of the following is a deuterostome?
A)Human
B)Starfish
C)Insect
D) A and B
E) All of the above
D) Human and starfish
In which geological era did the animals undergo extensive radiation?
Precambrian, paleozoic, mesozoic or cenozoic
Cenozoic
Invertebrates: Parazoa: porifera
sponges have random body structure
Spongocoel
early, basic
Osculum
flow of water, collecting nutrients
Choanocytes
feeding cells
Radiata
gastrovascular cavity: gut
polyps: coral
Medusa: jellifish
Nematocytes: Stinging cells
Comb Jellies: Thimble shaped
In corals/jellyfish mouth and anus ______
are the same
Acoelomates
have ganglia (brain)
eyespots
pharynx (gut)
nerve chords (nervous structure)
ie flatworms, planarians
Nematoda (c. elegans) (a pseudocoelomate)
roundworms are thoroughly studies; there are rovers and sitters
Coelomates: Mollusks
mollusks (have a foot)
visceral mass is the body muscle;
radula is the mouth
Other mollusks
gastropoda (snails)
bivalvia (clams, scallops)
cephalapodia (octopus)
Coelomates include
Mollusca, Annelida (earthworms), Arthropods: trilobites, chelicerates(spiders), uniramians (insects), crustaceans
Insects
coleoptra - beetles 500,000 species
hymenoptera-bees, wasps
isoptera-termines
orthoptera-roaches
T/F Roundworms are coelomates
FALSE!
Which of the following is a deuterostome?
A Human
B Starfish
C Insect
D A & B
E All of the above
D-both human and starfish
Which of the following belongs to the most speciose order of insects?
House fly
Ladybird beetle
Moth
Stink bug
Dragonfly
Ladybird beetle!
Through evolution, wings turned into
halteres (gyroscope devices)
Ectoderm
Develops into skin
Mesoderm
develops into muscle
endoderm
develops into gut
invagination
changing blastula to gastrula
humans most likely evolved from
protiss, not fungus
blastocoel
inside of blastula
fluctuating assymetry
the right side is different from the left; more asymmetry means more genetically sick; female pick the most symmetric
acoelomate
pseudocoelomate
coelomate
acoelomate-planaria
pseudocoelomate-roundworm
coelomate-earthworm
what do we have in common with earthworms?
pumping vessels (heart)
ganglion (brain, nervous tissue)
crop (digestion)
circulation (veins and arteries)
neurobiology
ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny
early development reflects evolutionary history
coelocanth
lobe-finned fish-gave ability to evolve to terrestrial being; mostly extinct, not quite; benthic-lives low in water
parental care (terrestrial/marine)
terrestrial-female cares for young
marine-male cares for young
where you are born is important
amphibians return to water, while reptiles adapted to xeric (dry) environments
egg
structure, resistance to dessication, nutrient absorption
philotherm
cold blooded
homoetherm
warm blooded
mitochondrial eve
Africa, DNA cellular structure, female inheritence
Definition of chordate's notochord
major nerve vessel
Definitionof chordate's nerve chord
muscle segments under notochord
Pharyngeal slits
gills, covered by bone
somites
slits we lose during development
vertebrate's
Neural crest, cephalization, vertebral column, closed circulatory system
Nerual crest-neural ganglion
cephalization-brain
vertebral column-protect neurla ganglia
Evolutionary overview
Hagfish (no proper jaw), (exinct jawed fishes), sharks and rays (softbone, cartilaginous endoskeleton), bony fishes, amphibia, reptilia, birds, mammals
Swim blatter
orientation in water
Osteichthyes
bony skeleton, operculum, swim bladder,

ray-/lobe-finned/coelocanth are early ancestors of terrestrial organisms
Tetrabods: urodeles (salamanders)
wet, moisture for development
Anurans (frogs)
wet environment for development
extra-embryonic membranes
chorion, shell, yolk, nutrient
turtles/tortoises
water/xeric
aves: birds
be light to adapt for flight, aerodynamics: bats, flies, squirrels are analagous
Therapsids
monotremes (platypus): lays eggs, mammal
marsupials (kangaroos): don't lay eggs, but don't have full placental development
Placental mammals
monogamy: both parents nurture the young
Which of the following is a characteristic of the vertebrates?
A Pharyngeal slits
B Postnatal tail
C Pseudocoelomate body structure
D Answers A and B
E All of the above
D-Both pharyngeal slits and postnatal
T/F Sharks and rays are bony fish
FALSE
Which of the following is better adapted to xeric environments?
A Toad/Frog
B Tortoise/Turtle
C Salamander/Lizard
Toad (not frog)
Tortoise (not turtle)
Lizard (not salamander)
T/F Marsupials are placental mammals
FALSE
Animals: exchange with the environment
oxygen exchange: lungs,
diaphragm: contraction/expansion of the lungs
Epithilial tissues:
glandular, mucous, simplified, stratified
Glandular: secretory
Mucous: moisture
Simplified: single
Stratified: cuboidal, columnar, squamous
Connective tissue
collagenous fibers, elastic fibers (resilience), reticular fibers (structure)
macrophages
immune cells
muscle tissue
smooth or striated, connective tissue
nervous tissue
transmits information, sensory
digestive
absorption of nutrients
circulatory
moves blood
respiratory
moves oxygen
immune and lymphatic
kills enemy organs
endocrine
hormones
muscular
holds the bone together
involuntary: gut (smooth)
voluntary: pumping iron (striated)
energy budgets
behavioral ecology: optimize energy spent for energy received
homeostasis
control; even level of energy expended/received
regulators/conformers
regulators: warm-blooded, regulate own body temp and metabolic rate
conformers: dependent on environment
gut
villi-invaginations to increase surface area for optimal absorbtion, cell turnover very fast (in brain, very slow)
endotherms/ectotherms
endotherms: us
ectotherms: insects, lizards
modes of heat exchange
radiation: butterflies
evaporation: sweat
convection/conduction: contact
vasodialaion/vasconsiction
vein increase/decrease
torpor/hibernation
short term/long term shut down of metabolic processes
T/F nervous tissue is derived from the ectoderm
FALSE (mesoderm)
what is an endotherm?
a warm blooded animal (us)
explain what is Lamarckian about heat-shock proteins
if an animal is in heat shock, it can mutate a beneficial allele
Bulk feeders
snake eating big stuff
essential amino acid
tryptophan
fatty acids
omega 3 (salmon)
vitamins
fat soluble, water soluble
can overdose on ADEK
intracellular digestion/ extracellular
intra-cell
extra-gut
paristalis
natural motion of smooth muscle, pushing through food valves in the gut
sphincter
cardiac (closes to heart, prevents vomiting)
pyloric (controls food into intestine)
pancreas
endocrine function
liver
purifying food
gallbladder
breaking up fats, bile fats
epiglottis
keeps food from going down the trachea, lungs
esophogous
where food should go
stomach
start processing food with gastric juices
pepsin
breaks up proteins
small intestine
absorbs those smaller components of food
cecum
harbors bacteria for digesting cellulose (bigger in herbivore)
duodenum
small inestine
small intestine/large intestine
nutrients that have been broken down by the stomach/takes out wastes and creates feces
basidomycooeths
mushrooms we eat
are snakes substrate feeders?
no, bulk feeders
what type of feeders are whales?
suspension
which is the most speciose
coleoptra (beetles)
not diptera (flies)
holometabolism
complete metomorphosis, pupil & larvae, adults and juveniles don't compete in same environment
hemimetabolism
juveniles look like small adults and compete in the same environment
what type of body structure does sponges, cnidarians, and us have?
sponges: amorphous
cnidarian: radial
us: bilateral
periodontal disease
gum infection, can spread to body
can tell what you eat by dentition and eyes
herbivore: eyes on sides, no canines
carnivore: eyes in front, canines
omnivore: eyes in front, short canines
Difference between hermaphrodite and parthenogenesis
hermaphrodite has both gametes (eggs and sperm) and parthenogenesis is where female can reproduce without a mate, but it's bad b/c of muller's ratchet
marsupial/monotremes/us
marsupial-not placental
monotremes-lay eggs
us-placental
archioptrics
intermediate between reptile and bird; has claws, long tail, and teeth (know 1)
ectoderm
mesoderm
endoderm
ecto: skin, epithilium, nervous tissue
meso-muscle
gut-endo
what are deep fried pork skins
ectoderm
digestive system
bile dissolves fagt
pepsin dissolves ______
proteins
saliva dissolves ________
carbs
duadenum is part of _______
small intestine
oviperous
egg-laying
frogs
amphibians, need to mate in water
notochord
bone structure that protects nerve cord
when we became chordates, we gained ________
notochord
acoelomate
pseudocoelomate
coelomate
a-planaria
pseudo-round
coe-earth
in coelomate, must the brain be in one place?
no, can be in more than one place
spiders
arthropods, not insects because not head,thorax,abdomen; not 6 legs
what is scabies
parasitic mite (arthropod, not insect) and itches like hell
ticks
arthropods, has exoskeleton
4 wings-->2 wings-->wingless
wingless (termites/ants)
we are exo/endotherms
endotherms-create our own heat
why do herbivores have more mileage in digestive tract?
b/c harder to digest cellulose
diff in chondrichthyes and oseteichthyes
chond have cartilaginous skeleton/no proper bone, sharks/rays
oste have bony skeleton;