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173 Cards in this Set

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Phylogenetics
interpreting (retracing) evolutionary history
Fossil record/sedimentary rocks
Can't tell how courtship rituals changed, but can see some behavior: burrowing, nests
World age
3-4 Billion years old
Precambrian
beginning
Paleozoic
old
Mesozoic
Middle; dinosaurs came in
Cenozoic
New; Humans come in
Eras
Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic
Continents
Pangea splits into Laurasia and Gondwana
What organism does Meff work with?
Hosefly, NOT drosophila fruit fly
Mass extinction
more than 50% of species going extinct
Impact Hypothesis
Meteor hit, global wide, something covered earth like nuclear war
Extinction rate and consercation biology background
Anthropagenic-caused by humans; before IR 1/26 years, now 3/hour-3/week
Taxonomy
Classifying species by their history
Taxon
evolutionary unit
System for naming
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
Human taxonomy
Kingdom: Animal
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primata
Family: Hominidae
Genus: Homo
Species: sapien
Monophyletic
All accounted for
Polyphyletic
pieces
Paraphyletic
good explanation, but not complete
Outgroup
most distant group in phylogeny
synapomorphies
shared characteristics
parsimony
assume smallest number of steps were taken
Which of the following is the correct era for the mass extinction of the dinosaurs
mesozoic
Gondwana is the name for the earliest continental formation
FALSE
What to do to save endangered species
Maximize outbreeding, minimize inbreeding, shut down male female pair that produce too much, breed most distantly related individuals
Supportive breeding
bring in animals for captive population
Bacterial mats, stromatolites
early evidence of bacterial life, CO2 levels down, harsh environment
Elemental compounds of biological life
CHNOPS
Pasteur
Beer, kills things in your food, kill the source, sterile
Spontaneous generation
life from non-life
Aeroplanution
microorganisms in the air
Exobiology
study of extraterrestrial life
Nanobacteria
Could be a form of earlier life, from Mars? debates: are they too small to be alive?
Endosymbionts
mitochondria have their own DNA, when incorporated into our cells, become dependent on our cells, increase complexity from simple steps
Protobionts
experimental construct that simluates cell structure and reproductive phase without DNA or RNA
Prions
Natural; cause mad cow; proteins that self replicate; no RNA or DNA
What do fungi have in common with animals
CHITIN
Hydrological model
energy buildup, has to be expended, like water spilling over the dam (KITTY PLAY BITES)
Classical conditioning
pairing a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus; pavlovs dogs
Operant conditioning
based on consequences; if i do this, this will happen
orangutans, chimps (bonobos)
1 of 3 species that has sex for fun
Fungi; chitin
animal like product found in insects but preproduce in plant like manner, no chlorophyll
prokaryotes
no nucleus, but DNA
extremophiles
deal with extreme ecological conditions
halophiles
salt loving
thermophiles
love heat
Bacteria
Archae
Eukarya
Bacteria: No nucleus
Archae: no true nucleus
Eukarya: Yes nucleus
Cell Walls:
Cocci
Rods
Helices
Cocci-sphere shaped
Rods-tubular
Helices-spirals
Peptidoglycan
Structural compound in bacteria
Gram stain
Postive-blue, has lots of peptidoglycan
Negative-not blue, not lots of peptidoglycan
Does evolution violate the 2nd law of thermodynamics
NO! earth is not a closed system; energy is gained from the sun, therefore you can increase complexity
Pili
appendages used for transferring DNA
Flagella
used for locomotion; protists have these
Nucleoid region
region where DNA is found, but not proper nucleus (no membrane)
Binary fission
divide into 2; advantage of no sex: don't have to find a mate
Conjugation
using pili
Transformation
take up DNA from environment (passively)
Transduction
uses a vector ans an intermediate organism (ie virus) to transfer DNA
antibiotics
bacterial resistance: extra chunk of DNA -can transfer resistance by sex pili, get super bugs
photoautotrophs
light, co2
chemoautotrophs
no light, co2
photoheterotrophs
light, carbon from other soucres
chemoheterotrophs
no light, carbon from other sources
Nitrogen fixation
most nitrogen in planet is in n2 form, we can't use this form, bacteria take ne2 and put it in usable form; symbiosis mutual relationship
obligate aerobes
need o2
facultative anaerobes
can do, can do without o2
obligate anaerobes
can't deal with o2, must deal with NO o2
anaerobic respiration
metabolism without o2
archea
prone to extreme lifestyles
spirochetes
helical, spheres, rods, helices
cyanobacteria
photosynthetic, capturing energy from the sun
bioluminescence
glow in the dark (fireflies aren't flies)
decomposers
eat dead things to recycle nutrients ie flies
symbiosis
n2 fixation in exchange for other nutrients
mutualism
plus/plus; both species get advantage
commensalism
plus/0 1 species benefits, other, no effect
parasitism
plus/minus 1 benefits, other harmed (scabies-slow predatory behavior, not kill prey immediately)
T/F the pili in bacteria are used for locomotion
FALSE-sex
T/F bacteria have obligate sexual reproduction
FALSE
Which of the following describes bacteria that need oxygen for metabolis?
Obligate aerobe
Protists
earliest animal like and plant like organism; most unicellular, some, lots of cells
fungi
heterotrophs, but plant like reproduction
paramecia
protists, ciliates, egg-like, live in aqueous environment
amoeba
blobular, pseudopods, phagocytosis - pseudopods eat
How can evolution take big steps?
Sexual selection, polyploidy, endosymbiosis, bottlenecks, ritualization
protozoa
animal like, heterotrophs
absorptive
eat dead things, fungus like
algae
plant like, photosynthesis
syngamy
evolution of sex, protists have it
plankton
marine protists
plastids and mitochondria
symbiosis with formally free living prokaryotes, increases complexity
eugleozoa
flagella used for locomotion
haploid
1 N, 1 allele per locus; gametes
diploid
2 N, 2 allels per locus; mos of our cells
volvox
colonies can give birth to another
plasmodial and cellular slime molds
cellular used for social evolution model; altruism-forfeit reproductive output for others, protecting relatives: dumb! (bees, wasps, termites, naked mole rats: queen in charge of reproduction)
seaweed
not a plant
red algae
red energy capturing, photosynthetic
green algae
lichen; mutualism between fungi and photosynthetic algae or fungi and cyanobacteria
which of the following do protists use for locomotion
cilia, pseudopodia, and flagella
which of the following is a model for social evolution
slime molds
T/F volvox is unicellular
FALSE; tissue, community
sporophyte
diploid, 2n
gametophyte
haploid, n
dogs
candis, pack, use teeth
cats
feline, solitary, use claws to hold and eviscerate (scratch out insides)
pygmy elephants
convergent evolution, colonized small islands, as opposed to humans colonizing and creating a competitive environment with native animals
heterochrony
change in developmental timing, axolotyl: salamander, adult reproductive functions in a juvenile body
Fungi
animal like: have chitin (an animal-like protein found in fungi) and are heterotrophs (can't photosynthesize)
What is largest living organism?
fungus! 3.5 mles
inbreeding depression
mating between close relatives who are carriers of deleterious recessive alleles are more probable to get genetically sick offspring
plants can prevent selfing in two ways
differential timing of male/female structures or self-incompatibility
monoccious
both sexes in same plant
diecious
either male or female
bryophytes
nonvascular, mosses
vascular plants
pteridophytes, nonseeded, complex tissue structure dealing with lack of water
charophyceans
closest algal relative to land plants
seeded plants
embryo protects seed
stomata
on leaves, opening for gas exchange, much water=turgid, stomata open: no water=not turgid, stomata closed
cuticle
protective barrier, crusty
apical meristems
roots, invade earth to bring up nutrients and water, end of root forces plants to grow roots
lignin
structural compound, skeleton
vascular tissue
has both xylem (water) and phloem (food)
angiosperms
flowers
cycads
poisons-bats in guam
which came first?
novascular, then vascular
nonseeded, then seeded
nonpollinated, then pollinated
invading land
structure, shape on land, transport of nutrients, dessication, don't dry out, opens up ecological avenues for more species
speciose
how many species
gametangia
tissue that produce the gametophytes
chart of algae to plants
red alga>green algae>charophyceans>embryophytes
mosses
not vascular, but close,
liverworts
liver shaped
hornworts
horny structure
peet bogs
low o2, high acid
Which of the following belongs to the vascular plants?
slime molds-no, protists
mosses-no, non vascular
ferns
T/F Ferns have seeds
FALSE
fern
sporophyte, gametophyte, 50/50
integuments, megasporangium, megaspore
protection against dessication
pollen
male gamete, tree sperm, yellow
pollination
wind transfers pollen, fruit:way to move seeds
gymnosperms
not flowering, but do have seeds
ginko
only one species
conifers
cones, have no flowers, live for thousands of years
tracheids
structural form
monocot
early development, 1 leave proginitor
dicot
2 primodial leaves
flower
sepals, petals, stamens, carpels
stamen
reproductive structure; anther-pollen, filament-support
carpels
stigma-pollen has to come in
style-support structures
ovary-where embryo is located
life cycle of plant
fertilized embryo to seed
multiple fruit
pineapple
endosperm
nutritive component of seed
radiation of the angiosperms
gymnosperms first, angiosperms, later phase
coevolution
2 species evolve as they interact with each toerh
T/F In seed plants, the reduced gametophyte is dependent on the sporophyte
TRUE
flowering plants are called
angiosperms
what is a typical nocturnal pollinator
bats (lily shaped plants)
T/F fungi have chitin
TRUE
commensalism, mutualism, competition, parasitism
commensalism +0
mutualism ++
competition--
parasitism+-
endosymbionts
mitochondria and chloroplasts have membrane structure and DNA, allows evolution to take saltational leaps
sperm
mitochondrial DNA doesn't fertalize egg, so all mitochondrial DNA is from mom
diff between flagellum and pili
flagellum-locomotion
pili-SEX
portists
unicellular/multicellular, hetero/autotrophic
diff between protist/land plant
kelp-NOT land
ugleana-both hetero and auto
paramecium-ciliates
pseudopod
amoeboid; movement, eating
must
elephant goes crazy when wants to mate
sporangium
tissue
antoridium
male reproductive tissue; sperm
archegonium
female tissue, eggs
ferns
alteration of generation; relative apportionment; gametophyte/sporophyte
are there intermediary forms in evolutionary biology
YES
flower order
sepal petal anther stigma style ovary