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42 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what is diffusion?
movement of substances from regions of higher concentration to regions of lower concentration
what is osmosis?
movement of water from high concentration to low concentration
what is a selectively permeable membrane?
a membrane that some solutes can cross more easily than others
what is osmotic stress?
when the solute concentration of dissolved substances in a cell or tissue is abnormal
what is osmoregulation?
the process by which living organisms control the concentration of water and salt in their bodies
what is an osmoconformer?
an organism that's set point for water and electrolyte concentration matches their environment
what is hypotonic?
a body containing more solutes outside the body than inside
why are marine fish under constant osmotic stress?
because they constantly lose water and gain salt
why are freshwater fish constantly under osmotic stress?
because they gain water and lose salt
what is a hypertonic solution?
when the solution inside the body contain more solutes than the surrounding water
which fish constantly drinks water?
marine fish because they constantly lose water
what fish doesn't drink water?
freshwater fish because they gain too much water
how do terrestrial animals lose water?
evaporation
whats passive transport?
diffusion of a solute along a electrochemical gradient, requires no atp
what is active transport?
requires atp to move s solute against it's concentration gradient
what's a channel?
proteins that form a pore that selectively admits an ion or ions
what is a carrier?
a membrane protein that binds a specific molecule to pass it through the membrane by changing shape
whats a sympoter?
a cotransporter that moves solutes in opposite directions
whats a cotransporter?
a active transport method passing two molecules
explain how water moves in and out of cells?
when salt moves in water moves out or salt moves out water moves in
why do animals use an electrochemical gradient?
animals set up a strong electrochemical gradient for one ion
(typically salt) which is then used to transport other substances without more energy
what does the rectal gland secrete?
it secretes a concentrated salt solution
how do ions move into cells?
the na+ gradient
when a buildup of cl- ions happens where do they go?
a pump diffuses them into the lumen of the gland
what is hemolymph?
a substance in insects that is pumped by the heart which carries electrolytes, nutrients,oxygen and waste products
what do the malpighian tubules in insects do?
they form a filtrate from the hemolymph where it is processed in the hindgut
what if an insect is osmotically stressed?
it will try to recollect its water and electrolytes from the filtrate and put them back into the hemolymph
what factor regulates reabsorbtion?
stress by the enviornment
if there is no water how will it affect reabsorbtion?
all water will be reabsorbed and the concentration of waste molecules will be higher in excretion
if there is an abundace of water , how will this affect reabsorbtion?
water is less conserved and waste molecules will
explain the path of urine from creation to exit
urine is waste and water processed in the kidneys that pass through the ureter to the bladder then passed to the body surface by the urethra
what part of the kidney does work involving water and electrolytes?
the nephron maintains water and electrolyte balance
the kidneys outter region is called what?
the cortex
the kideys inner region is called what?
medulla
explain the path of the nephron.
renaal corpuscle to the proximal tube to the loop of henle to the distal tube and finally to the collecting duct
what does the renal corpuscle do?
filters blood to make pre urine
what does the proximal tube do?
reabsorbs nutrients, vitamins, valuable ions and water
what does the loop of henle do?
has a strong osmotic gradient with outside tissues and having osmolarity increase as it move down the tube.
what does the distal tube do?
ions and water are reabsorbed in a regulated manner
what does the collecting duct do?
this collects urine but may also reabsorb water if necessary.
what does adh do?
causes reabsorbtion of water
what does aldosterone do?
it causes reabsorbtion of salt through the distal tube