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337 Cards in this Set

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Keratin:
the protein in fingernails, animal horns, feathers
Collagen:
the protein in cartilage, tendons, and bones
transport proteins:
some proteins act as transport molecules (ex: hemoglobin) in vertebrate red blood cells, transports oxygen to cells
hormonal proteins:
some proteins act as hormones (ex: insulin) secreted by the pancreas, regulates blood sugar (glucose) levels
storage proteins:
Ex: ovalbumin (the protein in egg whites) is used by the developing chick embryo
protein compounds which combat/destroy bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances in an organism. produced by white blood cells.
antibodies
polymers composed of monomers called nucleotides which are linked together by dehydration synthesis
nucleic acids
nucleotide monomer structure =
5 carbon sugar molecule, phosphate functional group, 1 of 5 different nitrogenous bases (A,G,C,T,or U)
why are nitrogenous bases named as nitrogenous bases?
they tend to take up hydrogen ions from solutions and therefore act as bases
nucleotide monomers are linked by what kind of bond?
covalent
the covalent bonds of nucleotide monomers are formed between ______ molecules and their ________ ______ to form polynucleotides called ______ _______
sugar; phosphate groups; nucleic acids
chromosomes are composed of:
DNA and protein
DNA stands for.....
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
each DNA nucleotide is composed of:
deoxyribose, a phosphate functional group, 1 of 4 different nitrogenous bases (A,G,C,T)
deoxyribose is:
the 5 carbon monosaccharide sugar in DNA
the "sides of the ladder" in a molecule of DNA are composed of:
repeating phosphate functional groups and deoxyribose sugar molecules
the "rungs of the ladder" in a molecule of DNA are composed of:
pairs of nitrogen bases held together by hydrogen bonds.
Adenine only bonds with ____
Thymine
Cytosine only bonds with _____
Guanine
RNA stands for:
Ribonucleic Acid
Each RNA nucleotides is composed of:
ribose, a phosphate functional group, 1 of 4 different nitrogenous bases (A,G,C,U)
ribose is:
the 5 carbon monosaccharide sugar in each RNA nucleotides
Uracil is used instead of Thymine in:
RNA
Thymine is used instead of Uracil in:
DNA
RNA is composed of a _____ chain of nucleotides.
single
proteins are composed of ______ _____ monomers.
amino acids
the "building block" subunit of a protein
amino acids
Protein structure:
a central C atom bonded to an H atom, a carboxyl group, an R group and an amino group
Each protein is composed of a central __ atom, which is bonded to an __ atom, an amino group (NH2), a ______ (acid) group (COOH), and an R group
C; H; carboxyl
NH2
amino group
COOH
carboxyl group
the variable part of the amino group; it may be only a H atom or a carbon skeleton with various functional groups attached, is different for each amino acid. the physical and chemical properties of ______ determine the unique properties of an amino acid
R group
____ amino acids are naturally occurring but only ___ are used to build the majority of proteins
150; 20
like fats, amino acids are synthesized within living cells using _____ and __ compounds as starting materials
sugars; N
Nitrogen Fixation
conversion of nitrogen gas in the atmosphere into usable N compounds such as ammonia, nitrate, nitrites.
Nitrogen Fixation is carried out by:
certain species free-living in the soil (bacteria), certain species of cyanobacteria in special cells called heterocysts, AND bacteria living symbiotically in roots of legumes
humans are unable to synthesize __ amino acids. These must be taken in as part of the diet. (essential)
8--animals (including humans) can synthesize SOME of their own amino acids using ammonia as a nitrogen source and dietary sugars.
formation of proteins from amino acid monomers happens through a ________ _________ reaction.
dehydration synthesis
polypeptide
molecule composed of more than 3 amino acids linked by peptide bonds
one or more polypeptide chains twisted, wound, and folded upon themselves to form a macromolecule with a definite three-dimensional shape
proteins
insulin's composed of 2 polypeptide chains. one has ___amino acids, the other has ___ amino acids.
30; 21.
hemoglobin contains ___ polypeptide chains
4
the function of a protein depends on:
it's 3-dimensional shape (conformation). it allows that protein to bind specifically with another molecule.
sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chain:
primary structure
structure resulting from the folding of a polypeptide chain as it formed; due to H bonds between functional groups that repeat at regular intervals along the polypeptide backbone.
secondary structure
determines protein structure and function:
the sequence of amino acids
the sequence of amino acids is determined by:
the hereditary information (DNA)
this structure determines the 3-dimensional shape and its biological function
primary structure
there are ___ common secondary structures:
2
Ex: protein molecules of hair and muscle tend to form helices-stretchable due to H-bonds which break and reform
Coil (helix) secondary structure
Ex: protein molecules in silk which form smooth, non-elastic sheets.
Pleated sheet secondary structure
the complex structure resulting from the folding of the secondary structure of a protein due to a variety of interactions among R groups including H bonds, ionic bonds and covalent bonds between sulfur atoms in certain R groups.
tertiary structure
overall 3D structure of protein molecule that consists of 2 or more polypeptide chains
quaternary structure
protein denaturation
the process in which a protein unravels and loses its natural 3-dimensional shape, i.e. the secondary and/or tertiary structure of the protein is destroyed which cases the protein to lose its biological function (NOT primary structure)
What can cause denaturation?
excess heat, extreme pH, high salt concentration
causes the protein to lose its biological function
denaturation
denaturation is often reversible unless:
the protein precipitates from the solution. Ex: cooked egg white
all earth environments that support life:
biosphere
entire array of organisms:
community
same species:
population
organism cooperation:
organ system
Organ--> ______--> cells -->________
tissues; organelle
organelle:
specific function of a cell
List in order from biggest to smallest: organism, population, tissues, cell, ecosystem, biosphere, organ, organelle, molecule, community, organ system.
biosphere, ecosystem, community, population, organism, organ system, organ, tissues, cell, organelle, molecule
plants and animals are _______
eukaryotic
bacteria are ________
prokaryotic
3 domains of life:
Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
Bacteria and Archaea are:
prokaryotes, single-celled
evolution:
"descent with modification"
all chemical reactions by which cells acquire and use energy
metabolism
oxidation of food to produce energy (ATP)
respiration
production of food from Carbon Dioxide and water using light
photosynthesis
the process by which all living things maintain a stable internal environment
homeostasis
if internal environment is disrupted, the organism _____
dies
living things have:
potential to reproduce
living things transmit characteristics from parent to offspring by:
heredity
living things ______ and ______
grow; develop
Darwin's theory of evolution:
1-individuals in a population posses a great deal of genetic variation that can be passed on to the next generation. 2-population's have potential to produce more offspring will survive. 3-have traits that make them better able to decide. 4-they survive and reproduce and pass on favored traits. This all results in a change in genetic make-up of the population.
adaptation:
any characteristic that increases chances of an organism surviving and producing in a particular environment
flow of nutrients = flow of _______
energy
Steps of the Scientific Method:
1-observation. 2-question. 3-hypothesis. 4-prediction. 5-controlled experiment. 6-statistical analysis. 7-reject or accept hypothesis based on statistical analysis. 8-publish results.
tentative explanation based on known facts to account for observed phenomena
hypothesis
Controlled experiment =
consists of 2 randomly selected groups. 1. experimental group-treated with respect to variable (factor). 2. control group-treated exactly the same except in one respect (variable)
water molecules exhibit _______ and ________
cohesion; adhesion
cohesion:
LIKE molecules cling together. water molecules cohere to H bonds --> surface tension
adhesion:
tendency of UNLIKE molecules to cling together. Water molecules adhere to polar surfaces by forming H bonds with them.
diffusion:
movement of water from low to high concentration
the movement of water in veins of plants is caused by ______ and ______
cohesion and adhesion
water uptake --> _______ and ________ in xylem -->transpiration
cohesion and adhesion
water resists heat changes. true or false?
true
total amount of energy in a substance due to molecular motion
heat
measure of intensity of heat = average speed of molecules
temperature
______ amounts of heat are required to break H bonds in water
large
heat required to break H bonds in water --> increased motion of water --> ______ ______ __________
increased water temperature
frozen water is more dense than liquid water. true or false?
false
formula to find density =
mass / volume
water has its greatest density at ___ degrees Celsius and lowest density at ___ degrees Celsius
4; 0
H bonds in water constantly break and reform. true or false?
true
H bonds in ice create rigid open lattice which holds molecules _____
apart
surface ice insulates lower depths. true or false?
true
body fluids and cells in some insects, fish, and frogs have _______ (alcohol) which acts as an antifreeze, preventing ice formation in cell and body fluids
glycerol
water ionizing =
disassociating into charged particles
substances that causes an increase in H+ in a solution
acid
base
substance that causes a decrease in H+ in a solution = increase in OH-.
example of a base:
NH3 (ammonia) dissolved in water. NH3 + H+ (from water) --> NH4+
example of an acid:
HCl dissolved in water. HCl --> H+ +Cl-
pH scales measures....
relative H+ and OH-, values 0-14
pH below 7 =
acid, higher H+ than OH-
pH = 7
neutral
pH above 7 =
base
1 pH unit = ___-fold change in H+ (hydrogen ion concentration)
10
buffers =
substances that resist changes in pH by absorbing or releasing H+ into the solution
normal pH for blood =
7.4. if it rises too 7.8 or below 7 = death
example of a buffer:
blood plasma. it contains a bicarbonate (HCO3-), the carbonic acid is the buffer (H2CO3)
most important elements for life
C, H, O
chemical reaction rearrange matter, do not create or destroy. true or false?
true
carbon can form ___ covalent bonds and commonly forms with:
4; C, H, O, N
Structure of C compounds:
C "skeleton" (varies in length), may have double bonds, can be arranged in rings, organic molecules often exist as isomers, have many properties due to types of functional groups
true or false: functional groups are polar making compounds making them soluble in water (hydrophylic=water-loving)
true
most biochemical reactions involve:
formation or breaking of C bonds and/or transfer of functional groups
some groups of molecules attached to organic molecules are ________ and _______ but affect a molecule's molecular shape and function
non-reactive; non-polar
properties of organic polymers depend on ______ and _______ of monomers
kind and arrangement
starch is a ________ composed of sugar _______
polymer; monomers
2 most common biochemical reactions in living systems:
dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis
dehydration synthesis:
2 or more monomers form a polymer with the removal of water. 1-a molecule of water is removed per pair of monomers linked. 2-reactions require enzymes
polymer broken down into monomer by addition of water-digestion
hydrolysis. hydro=water, lysis=breakdown
polymers are _____ while monomers are ______
stored; transported
most common elements in humans:
oxygen (65%), hydrogen (10%), carbon (18%)
_____% of the human body is composed of O, H, C
93%
carbohydrates are monomers and polymers of ______
sugars
cell theory:
1-all organisms are composed of 1 or more cells. 2-cells are the basic living unit of organization. 3-all cells derive from pre-existing cells.
all cells:
1. bound by a cell/plasma membrane. 2. contain DNA. 3. contain cytoplasm. 4. contain ribosomes 5. cell walls 6. enzymes
cytoplasm:
composed of semi-fluid material, organelles (eukaryotes only) and structures
structures on which proteins are synthesized =
ribosomes
structure of water molecule =
1 oxygen atom covalently bonded with 2 hydrogen atoms, is neutral in charge, is a polar molecule (slightly negative and positive charged regions), form H bonds
weak, sticky bond. form when slightly positive H atoms participating in polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to a slightly negative atom (O or N). much weaker than covalent bonds.
hydrogen bond
substance that is doing the dissolving
solvent
substance that is being dissolved
solute
solution =
uniform mixture of 2 or more substances
due to polarity, water is a good solvent for:
ionic compounds, other polar molecules, large molecules with regions of negative and positive charges.
atom or molecule that has gained or lost an electron =
ion
ionic bond =
attraction between 2 ions with opposite charges. ex: NaCl + H2O --> Na++Cl-
math formulas used to determine if you should accept the results/hypothesis whether experiments are due to chance alone or are due to experimental manipulation
statistical analysis
clinical trials =
effectiveness of medical treatments
hypothesis supported by a great deal of evidence, not a guess-always possible for revision
theory. ex: theories of evolution and relativity
theory which has been validated over a long period of time.
law. ex: Mendel's laws of genetics
monosaccharides =
single simple sugars composed of only one sugar molecule. ex: glucose (C6H12O6)
structure of monosaccharides =
generally 3-7 carbon atoms long, composed of 1 Carbon, 2 Hydrogen, and 1 Oxygen. usually contain a number of hydroxyl (-OH) functional groups and a carbonyl (-C=O) functional group attached to the carbon atoms
_______ often form isomers. examples: glucose and fructose-generally exist as straight chains except when dissolved in cell fluids they form ring structures.
monosaccharides
the monomer "building block" from which cells construct more complex carbohydrates and other organic molecules
monosaccharides
process by which cells extract energy from organic compounds (food=ATP for use by cell)
Cellular Respiration
many monosaccharides are the main source of _______ for cells
energy
examples of hexose (composed of 6 C atoms) monosaccharides: _________ and ________
glucose and fructose
common form of sugar in the blood
glucose
used in honey and as a sweetener in pop
fructose
two monosaccharides covalently bonded together =
disaccharides
disaccharides are formed when two hexose (6C) monosaccharide isomers are bonded by ____________ __________ reactions
dehydration synthesis
breakdown (digestion) of disaccharides back to their monosaccharide monomers is caused by ________ reactions
hydrolysis
examples of disaccharides composed of 2 hexose (6C) monosaccharides: _______ and _______
sucrose; lactose
sucrose =
table sugar. = glucose and fructose. in plants, transported downward from leaves to cells through the PHLOEM.
in the phloem (inside cells), ________ is synthesized into _______ for ________ and/or _________ --> respiration --> energy for plants
sucrose; starch; storage; digestion
in sugar maple trees, sucrose moves ______ via ________ _______in the spring
upward; xylem vessels
glucose + galactose =
lactose
lactose =
primary sugar in milk. Human digestion of lactose breaks it down into glucose and galactate.
____% of human population are lactose intolerant after infancy
85
the gene located on chromosome #__ is responsible for controlling production of lactose being to shut down after ________
2; infancy
symptoms of lactose intolerance:
diarrhea, cramps, bloating, etc.
glucose + glucose =
maltose
maltose is _________ during ________ --> glucose --> energy for growth
hydrolyzed; germination
beer brewing:
yeast hydrolyze maltose stored in seeds --> glucose --> respiration --> energy + ethanol + carbon dioxide
more than two monosaccharides bonded together =
polysaccharides
cellulose, starch, glycogen and chitin are all composed of glucose monomers and are examples of _________
polysaccharides
all monomer subunits are _______
glucose
cellulose:
1) most abundant organic compound on earth. 2) humans and most other animals are unable to digest it. 3) structural component in plant cells = wood in trees
cellulose can be digested by:
Some free-living species of bacteria, certain protozoa living symbiotically in the gut of a termite (simple sugars are used as food by both the termite and protozoa), and protozoa and bacteria in rumen (fermentation vats) of cows
________ synthesized in chloroplasts and is stored in the plants leaf, stem, and root cells
starch
stored _____ in plant cells -->(hydrolysis)-->sucrose -->(hydrolysis)-->glucose-->(respiration)-->energy
starch
starch in corn kernels hydrolyzed using HCl-->glucose. some is chemically converted (using enzymes) to fructose (50% glucose + 50% fructose)
High Fructose Corn Syrup
controversy over High Fructose Corn Syrup possibly causing obesity led to the replacement of HFCS with ________
sucrose
when the blood ______ is low: _______ in the liver is hydrolyzed --> glucose --> transported to cells needing energy (ATP)
glucose; glycogen
blood glucose levels are regulated by _______
insulin
glycogen:
storage carb. in certain animal tissues (in humans, primarily in the liver).
complex carbs (polysac) in food digested --> glucose --> combined in liver -->_________ ___ _______
glycogen for storage
exoskeletons:
protect organs and tissues, prevent water loss, provide attachment for muscles, prevent infection by bacteria and fungi
structural component of insect exoskeletons:
chitin
chitin is composed of:
glucose monomers and nitrogen
why must insect larvae and adults shed their exoskeleton?
to grow = molting (ecolysis)
traits inherited as units (genes) present in pairs on homologous chromosomes =
characteristics
alternate forms of gene controlling for one trait =
alleles
alleles occupy the same ______ (position) on homologous chromosomes and are separated from each other during meiosis
locus
having 2 identical alleles at a locus =
homozygous
heterozygous =
having 2 different alleles at each gene locus
when heterozygous, an allele whose expression masks the expression of its partner. expressed in capital letters.
Dominant allele
when heterozygous, an allele whose expression is fully or partially masked by its partner. expressed in small letters.
recessive allele
one is homozygous dominant for a trait when...
they have 2 dominant alleles for a trait-each on a separate chromosome
one is homozygous recessive for a trait when...
they have 2 recessive alleles for a trait
individual's observable traits (ex: hair color, eye color, ability to metabolize milk, etc)
phenotype
genotype =
types of genes present in a cell
cross (mating) involving one trait =
monohybrid cross
dihybrid cross =
cross involving 2 traits
neither allele for a trait masks the presence of other alleles. phenotypes of heterozygote are ___________ between phenotype of the homozygote in __________ _________
intermediate; incomplete dominance
hypercholesterolemia =
genetic disease in humans. phenotype: very high LDL cholesterol levels in blood
when one's cholesterol genotype is HH, their phenotype is....
normal # of LDL receptors on cell surface = normal LDL cholesterol levels
what is the phenotype of a person with the cholesterol genotype of Hh...
a few receptors present on the cell surface = mild disorder
what is the phenotype of a person with the cholesterol genotype of hh...
NO LDL receptors on the cell surfaces. This individual suffers from hypercholesterolemia
genes located on at least one sex chromosome =
sex-linked genes
in humans, most genes are located on the __ chromosome; not the ___ chromosome
X; Y
how is hemophilia "A" controlled?
by injecting normal blood clotting proteins
what is hemophilia "A"?
group of diseases that causes abnormal blood clotting, caused by a recessive gene on X chromosomes. very rare.
single trait in individual controlled by more than one pair of genes located on the same OR different chromosomes (ex: human height or skin color) =
polygenic inheritance
human skin color is controlled by ___-___ gene pairs
3;4
pleiotropy =
one gene has multiple effects on phenotype of an organism. ex: sickle cell anemia
sickle cell anemia is caused by:
a recessive gene that codes for production of defective hemoglobin in RBCs. when oxygen is low, defective hemoglobin crystalizes in RBCs -->sickle-shaped RBCs
treatment of sickle cell anemia:
blood transfusions to relieve symptoms, no cure yet. few live to reproductive age.
sickle cell anemia is most common in the ________ ________ population (__% are heterozygous, ____% have the disease)
African American; 9; 0.2
ribosomes are found where?
either in rough ER or free-floating cytoplasm
function of the mitochondrion:
site of aerobic cellular respiration=oxygen-requiring biochemical reactions in which energy rich organic molecules break down --> ATP
structure of the mitochondrion:
1-5 micrometers long. enclosed by 2 membranes. has central space called matrix, and space between inner and outer membranes, contain mDNA and ribosomes
the inner membrane of the mitochondrion is infolded forming ______ which makes more surface area for the biochemical reactions
cristae
true or false: mitochondria divide when the cell divides.
true
describe theory or symbiotic origin of mitochondria:
atmosphere increased (O2) due primarily to increase in # of cyanobacteria. large anaerobic eukaryotic cells engulf the smaller, aerobic bacteria. over time, the aerobic symbiotic bacteria "became" mitochondria
bacteria are ________ able to produce large amounts of energy via ________ respiration
prokaryotes; aerobic
network of membranes divide cytoplasm into compartments and channels:
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
ER with ribosomes attached, is continuous with outer membrane nuclear envelope, look like flattened sacs.
rough ER
group of organelles which aid in production, packaging and transport of organic molecules in cells =
endomembrane system
endomembrane system includes:
Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies (apparatus), and lysosomes
rough ER is used to:
synthesize pieces of biological membranes using protein productions by ribosomes of the rough ER and phospholipids produced in smooth ER. Also, to produce proteins secreted by certain cells (ex: antibodies, digestive enzymes)
steps in synthesizing and packaging of secretory proteins by rough ER:
1-DNA in nucleus codes for mRNA, leaves nucleus by nuclear pores and attach to ribosomes of RER. 2-mRNA directs protein synthesis on RER, ribosomes and proteins moved into RER. 3-proteins packages into small sacs (transport vesicles) which bud from RER.
where do RER transport vesicles containing secretory proteins generally move to?
Golgi bodies-for further processing of the protein
Golgi transport vesicles transport the final 'mature' secretory protein to.....
the cell membrane
Golgi transport vesicles fuse with the ____ _________ and are dumped outside (secreted)by exocytosis
cell membrane
characteristics of smooth ER:
lack ribosomes, interconnected tubes (continuous with rough ER), large # of enzymes embedded in its membrane used in the synthesis and breakdown of many organic compounds
functions of smooth ER:
synthesize lipids including phospholipids, triglycerides (fats and oils) and steroids. 2-Its enzymes help detoxify drugs (ex: sedatives, stimulants, antibiotics) and other toxins. 3-storage of Ca+ in muscle cells.
Golgi Bodies (Apparatus) characteristics:
stacks of membrane-bound sacs, package, modify, and distribute materials produced in the ER, form lysosomes
lysosomes are formed in the _____ ____ and contain _____ ______
Golgi body; digestive enzymes
lysosome enzymes aid in digestion of:
1-worn out organelles. 2-food particles engulfed by cells through endocytosis. 3-lipoprotein coat of LDL cholesterol --> cholesterol for cell use.
asbestosis:
lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos particles
causes of asbestosis:
asbestos particles are engulfed by WBCs in lung tissue, then engulfed by the WBC lysosomes but cannot be digested -->leakage digest enzyme from WBC lysosomes -->lung tissue damage (=asbestosis)
lysosomal storage disorders =
human inherited disorders in which lysosomes lack normal functioning enzymes due to gene mutation
lysosomes in LIVER cells lack glycogen-digesting enzymes --> build-up glycogen --> liver damage
Pompe's disease
lysosomes in BRAIN cells lack LIPID-digesting enzymes -->build-up of lipids --> brain damage
Tay-Sach's disease
membrane-bound sacs that are relatively small in animal and protest cells:
vacuoles
contractile vacuoles:
regulation of water balance (osmoregulation) in certain protozoans
network protein filaments in cytoplasm
cytoskeleton
true or false: cytoskeletons are found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
false, cytoskeletons are not found in prokaryotes.
functions of the cytoskeleton:
1-anchor organelles and some enzymes. 2-responsible for cell shape (not rigid and often changes with activity, disassembled or assembled). 3-microfilaments used in muscle contraction and cytoplasmic streaming. 4-microtubules used to move chromosomes during cell division. 5-extracellular matrix (ECM)
composed of the contractile protein actin and found in the cytoskeleton
microfilaments
move chromosomes during cell division-found in the cytoskeleton
microtubules
ECM structure:
composed of a network of glycoprotein filaments = protein bonded to carbohydrates
most abundant glycoprotein in ECM =
collagen
functions of ECM:
1-hold cells together in tissues. 2-protect and support cell membrane. 3-communicate between outside and inside cells
centrioles usually occur in all ________ cells but are usually absent in ________ cells
animal; plant
fluid within chloroplasts where carbon dioxide bonded together --> simple sugars
stroma
sit of photosynthetic reactions
chloroplasts
chloroplast structure:
thylakoids and stroma
flattened sacs whose membranes are embedded with chlorophyll and other pigments which trap light energy
thylakoids
true or false: plastids are involved with photosynthesis.
false
some plastids store _______, some store _______
starch; pigments
large, fluid-filled sac in mature plant cells. occupies 50-90% of cell volume
central vacuole
central vacuole functions:
water flows in constantly providing support, storage of sugars, proteins, etc. rich in nutrients, often contain digestive enzymes, storage of waste products often as crystals.
as a result of water constantly flowing into the vacuole:
turgor pressure --> vacuole pushes against the wall --> increased support
as a defense mechanism against predators, some plants accumulate toxic substance--this found in....
Diffenbachia (dumb cane)
cyclosis (cytoplasmic streaming)
movement cytoplasm, microfilaments involved. more common in plant cells than animal cells
chromosomes pulled by __________ of spindles apparatus during cell division by ______ and ______
microtubules; cilia; flagella
long, hair-like extensions of cell membrane, usually few in #. contain cytoplasm surrounded by cell membrane. contain 20 flexible rod-like microtubules (9 pairs to outside + 1 central pair)
flagella-structure is the same as cilia
flagella and cilia movement is due to:
movement of microtubules; requires ATP
short, hair-like extensions of the cell membrane, usually large in # used for movement of eukaryotic cells
cilia
composed of 2 layers of phospholipids (hydrophilic and hydrophobic), approximately 9 nm thick.
cell membrane
hydrophobic phopholipid
non-polar fatty acid-tails point inward
hydrophilic phospholipid
polar heads point outward forming H bonds with water
facilitated diffusion is passive. true or false.
true
lyme disease is primarily carried by the ____ tick which infects rodents and deer. Also in the ____ _____ tick-occurs in SE Nebraska.
deer; lone star
disease that usually starts as red bull's eye rash
lyme disease
if untreated by the vaccine that has been developed, may lead to:
debilitating arthritis, heart disease and nervous disorders
photoautotrophs that produce oxygen:
cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)
cyanobacteria is found where?
in water high in mineral nutrients (e.g. nitrates, phosphates). common species in NE lakes, ponds, and streams
what happens when cyanobacteria form "blooms"
fish die due to decrease in oxygen in water resulting in uptake of oxygen by aerobic respiring (use oxygen) bacteria and fungi during the decay of dead cyanobacteria. the cyanobacteria clogs fish gills --> death.
some species of cyanobacteria produce poisons that affect the nervous system that lead to fish death..these are called _______
neurotoxins
if a large quantity is consumed by humans, can make you ill. cattle and horses are very sensitive to these (usually cause death).
cyanobacteria neurotoxins
some species of __________ can "fix" nitrogen in specialized cells called ___________
cyanobacteria; heterocysts
structure of cyanobacteria is similar to bacteria EXCEPT:
they do not contain chloroplasts since they are prokaryotes*, cytoplasm contain specialized membranes called thylakoids where photosynthetic pigments are embedded (chlorophyll, etc.)-sites of photosynthesis
eukaryotic animal cells are composed of:
cell membrane=plasma membrane, nucleus, ribosomes, mitochondrion
describe the nucleus of a eukaryotic animal cell
contains chromosomes composed of DNA and proteins, chromatin, nuclear envelope, nuclear pores, nucleoplasm, nucleolus
chromatin =
uncoiled chromosomes observed when cells are not dividing -in the nucleus of eukaryotic animal cells
the nuclear envelope in the nucleus of a eukaryotic animal cell is composed of how many membranes?
2
protein channels in the nuclear envelope, allows materials to move in and out of the nucleus in eukaryotic animal cells
nuclear pores
true or false: the nucleolus is an organelle.
false
region within the nucleus of a eukaryotic animal cell where components of ribosomes are synthesized (manufactured)-1 or more of these per cell
nucleolus
ribosomes are approximately ___ nm in eukaryotic animal cells
20
true or false: ribosomes in eukaryotic animal cells are not enclosed by a membrane
true
in eukaryotic animal cells most proteins made on ____ ribosomes function within the ________ e.g. as enzymes
free; cytoplasm
________ synthesize proteins for use in cell and export
ribosomes
most proteins synthesize on ribosomes attached to ER will be:
1) inserted into membranes 2) packaged in certain organelles or 3) secreted from the cell
ribosomes in eukaryotic animal cells are found in either ____ or ____ ______ _________
RER; free-floating cytoplasm
the _________ is the site of aerobic cellular respiration (oxygen-requiring) in eukaryotic animal cells, where energy rich organic molecules break down --> ATP
mitochondrion
how long is the mitochondrion in eukaryotic animal cells? and how many membranes is it enclosed by?
1-5 micrometers long; 2 membranes
regulate water balance (osmoregulation) in certain protozoans
contractile vacuoles
structures and organelles that are in eukaryotic plant cells but NOT eukaryotic animal cells:
cell wall, plastids, large central vacuole
the cell wall in a eukaryotic plant cell lies _______ the cell membrane, provides support for the cell, composed of _______ fibers glued together by _______, and contains plasmodesmata
outsides; cellulose; pectin
strand cytoplasm that connects adjacent cells through holes in the cell wall in eukaryotic plant cells =
plasmodesmata
plasmodesmata allows movement material between _____
cells
the cell membrane in eukaryotic plant cells is composed of a "....."
mosaic of macromolecules, approximately 9 nm thick with 2 layers of phospholipids
site of food synthesis and/or food storage =
plastids
sugars often attached to proteins =
glycoproteins
sugars often attached phospholipids =
glycolipids
function of cell membrane proteins:
1) some are cell surface markers 2) some are cell surface receptors 3) some are enzymes 4) some form cell junctions where adjacent animal cells stick together 5) some help transport substance across the membrane
cell membrane proteins that are cell surface markers = ___________ (sugar proteins) "identify" or "label" each type of cell. referred to as _, _, & _ blood type in RBCs
glycoproteins; A; B; C
glycoproteins are important in tissue transplants because....
if foreign tissue is transplanted, the immune system cells "recognize" its surface markers as being "foreign" and destroy transplanted tissue = tissue rejection
cell membrane proteins that are cell surface receptors...
have shapes that fit shape-specific messenger molecules (ex: LDL cholesterol receptors, insulin receptors)
specific proteins that receive chemical messengers:
cell membrane proteins that are cell surface receptors
messenger (e.g. hormone) binds to receptor --> triggers chain reaction via other proteins --> relay message to a molecule that performs a specific activity inside the cell
signal transduction in cell surface receptors from cell membrane proteins
cell surface protein enzymes:
catalyze biochemical reactions
some cell membrane proteins help transport substances across the membrane. true or false?
true
difference in concentration between 2 solutions =
concentration gradient (slope)
the _______ the difference between concentrations of 2 solutions, the greater the concentration gradient.
greater
movement of molecules from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration due to KINETIC energy of molecules =
diffusion
factors that affect the rate of diffusion:
1) temperature-the higher the temp, the faster rate difference, 2) molecular size-small molecules diffuse at a faster rate than larger ones, 3) "steepness"-greater the concentration gradient between 2 solutions, the faster rate difference
in diffusion within cells, which is the solvent and which is the solute: water, organic macromolecules (e.g. NA+, K+, Cl-)
solvent: water. solute: organic macromolecules
diffusion into and out of cells depends on:
whether molecules can pass through the cell membrane
true or false: passive transport does not require energy
true
in simple diffusion, molecules move between phospholipid molecules of membranes and cell membranes are freely permeable to:
water, alcohol, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and uncharged small molecules.
special type of diffusion where movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration is called...
osmosis
passive transport across cell membrane requiring the help of membrane transport proteins =
facilitated diffusion
in facilitated diffusion, materials move from ____ to ____ concentration
high; low
true or false: facilitated diffusion = passive diffusion
true
true or false: facilitated diffusion requires energy (ATP)
false
transport of materials from regions of low concentration to regions of high concentration
active transport (AT)
active transport requires:
1) membrane proteins 2) energy (ATP)
1) glucose transported out of human intestine and into blood plasma by ATP. 2) Na+ transported out of RBCs into plasma by ATP --> isotonic plasma
examples of active transport
organisms require anaerobic conditions and are killed by oxygen include primarily bacteria living in conditions devoid of oxygen (e.g. bacteria living deep in soil or in mud at the bottom of deep or stagnant bodies of water)
strict anaerobes
organisms able to produce ATP by aerobic respiration when enough oxygen is able or by anaerobic respiration if oxygen is not available. (ex: yeast, single-celled fungi, e.coli and mammalian muscle cells)
facultative anaerobes
in _________ _______ __________, an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from an organic substrate molecule to ADP, producing a new organic molecule and a molecule of ATP
substrate level phosphorylation
1 strand of a double stranded chromosome
chromatid
region of attachment of sister chromatid
centromere
chromosomes exist in __ forms. What are they?
2; single-stranded (unreplicated) and double-stranded (replicated)
chromosome # in gametes of animals and spores:
N-haploid
G1, S, and G2 are in the _________ phase of the cell cycle
interphase