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60 Cards in this Set

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division of the nucleus during mitosis and meiosis
During interphase...
1.the DNA is uncoiled (chromatin)
2.each chromosome is replicated during this period, chromosomes are not yet visible.
3. Once DNA is replicated, sister chromatids form, held together at the centromere.
chromatin is...
uncoiled DNA
cell division
During prophase..
1.chromosomes condense 2.centriole pairs separate toward opposite poles
3.spindle apparatus forms 4.nuclear membrane dissolves
1.centriole pairs are at opposite poles.
2.Fibers of the spindle apparatus attach to each chromatid at the centromere.
3.Sister chromatids align at the metaphase plate.
Sister chromatids are pulled apart by the shortening of the spindle fibers (made of microtubules).
Spindle apparatus disappears.
Nuclear membrane reforms.
Each nucleus now contains 2N, diploid number of chromosomes. Chromosomes uncoil.
Cytoplasm divides into two daughter cells, each with a nucleus and own set of organelles.
Cleavage furrow in animal cells.
Cell plate in plant cells.
While animal cells have centrosomes and centrioles, plant cells have
the microtubule organizing center to help synthesize the spindle apparatus.
production of sex cells, haploid cells, from diploid cells.
Asexual Reproduction
when the offspring is genetically identical to the parent cells. i.e., fission, budding, regeneration, parthenogenesis.
new plasma membrane forms at midline of cell, dividing into two cells with equal amount of cytoplasm.
smaller cell formed from pinching off. replication of the nucleus followed by unequal cytokinesis.
regrowth of lost or injured body part, replacement of cell which occurs through mitosis. (starfish)
development of an unfertilized egg into an adult organims. (can be artificial when electrically stimulated)
All plants exhibit this kind of sexual reproduction.
alternation of generations. sporophyte (diploid) makes spores (haploid), which develop into gametophytes (haploid), which make gametes which fertilize and grow to become sporophytes (diploid).
During vegatative propagation, this kind of tissue provides a source of cells for the new plant.
meristems, undifferentiated tissues in plants.
examples of natural vegetative propagation.
bulbs, tubers, runners, rhizomes
artificial vegetative propagation requires...
1. cut piece of stem, the scion
2. stock, a closely related rooted stem
3. cambium tissue of both scion and stock to be in contact
4. in layering, a bent stem covered in soil can take root.
Prophase I
Chromatin condenses into chromosomes. Homologous sister chromatids synapse (synapsis) and intertwine, forming tetrads.
Metaphase I
Tetrads align at the equatorial plane and each pair attaches to a separate spindle fiber at the kinetochore.
Anaphase I
Homologous pairs separate and are pulled to opposite poles (disjunction); maternal and paternal chromosomes separate. Each daughter cell ends up with a random assortment of paternal and maternal homologous sister chromatids.
Telophase I
A nuclear membrane forms around each new nucleus. Chromosomes are still sister chromatids joined at the centromere.
Second meiotic division
Metaphase II, Anaphase II, and Telophase II, Cytokinesis. new cells have a haploid number of chromosomes. In females, only one of these cells becomes a functional gamete.
Sexual Reproduction
produces a genetically unique offspring. occurs by fusion of two gametes.
organs in which gametes are produced
gonads, testes (spermatogenesis) and ovaries (oogenesis).
hermaphrodites have..
both female and male reproductive organs.
sperm production which occurs in the seminiferous tubules. diploid spermatogonia undergo meiosis to produce four gametes. each consists of a flagellum, mitochondria in the neck, and nucleus containing the paternal genome.
one primary female sex cell (diploid) undergoes meiosis to produce a single mature ovum and a polar body, which quickly degenerates.
pathway of sperm
seminiferous tubules
vans deferens
ejaculatory duct
urethra is the common _______
and ________ passageway
excretory and reproductive systems.
Testes are the site of
testosterone production, which regulates secondary male characteristics (voice change, facial hair)
Ovaries are found in
abdominal cavity below the digestive system
ovaries consist of
thousands of follicles, multi-layered sacs each containing and nourishing one immature ovum.
follicle cells produce
mature ovum pathway
released from the follicle in the ovary through the fallopian tubes in the oviduct and to the uterus (muscular chamber) and cervix (lower, narrow part of the uterus), then vaginal canal, (site of fertilization and site from which baby is expelled).
ovaries are sites of
menstrual cycle (four phases)
follicular phase, ovulation, luteal phase, and menstruation
estrogens and progesterone
female sex hormones (steroid). estrogens secreted by follicle cells and corpus luteum. progesterone secreted by corpus luteum. Both steroid hormones are regulated by LH, FSH and GnRH.
follicle stimulating hormone
follicular phase (1)
1. cessation of the previous menstruation
2. FSH promotes development of the follicle, grows and secretes estrogen
ovulation (2)
midway through the cycle, while LH and FSH are peaking, a mature ovarian follicle bursts and releases an ovum. Ovulation is caused by a peak in LH (uteinizing hormone), which is preceded by a surge in estrogen levels
luteal phase(3)
LH induces ruptured follicle to develop into the corpus luteum, which secretes estrogen and progesterone. Progesterone causes the glands of the endometrium to mature and produce secretions to prepare for the implantation of the embryo.
what is essential for the maintenance of the endometrium
progesterone and estrogen.
menstruation (4)
if the ovum is not fertilized, the corpus luteum atrophies (progesterone and estrogen levels drop), giving rise to the menstrual flow from the endometrium sloughing off.
if fertilization occurs, the developing placenta produces
hCG, human chorionic gonadotropin, which maintains the corpus luteum
Haploid gametophytes produce gametes by
gametophytes reproduce _____ while sporophytes reproduce ________.
sexually, asexually. gametophyte gametes fertilize
the dominant generation is ____ in

-angiosperms (flowering plants)
gametophyte; sporophyte; sporophyte
reproductive organ of angiosperms
male reproductive organ of flower; consists of a anther (terminal sac) and filament. anther produces haploid spores which develop into pollen grains.
female reproductive organ of flower; composed of the stigma(sticky top), style(tube), and ovary, containing the monoploid egg nucleus.
pollen grain
male gametophyte of angiosperm plants
female gametophyte
ovule that develops from one of four spores.
during angiosperm fertilization
one sperm nucleus and one egg nucleus makes a zygote which develops into an embryo. One sperm nucleus and two polar nuclei for a 3N endosperm which nourishes the embryo. All of these compose the seed.
Parts of Seeds:
Precursor of upper stem and leaves.
Seed leaves.
Develops into lower stem and root.
seed coat
feeds the embryo.
develops from the ovule covering.
fruits are
made from ovary walls and other pistil components. serves as a means of seed dispersal
are fused gametophyte gametes with an endosperm and a seed coat. after dispersed, they may germinate with appropriate temperature, humidity and oxygen conditions.