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237 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Central Nervous System
The brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system
The part of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord, including the nerves attached to the brain and spinal cord.
Soma
The cell body of a neuron, which contains the nucleus
dendrite
A branched, treelike structure attached to the soma of a neuron; recieves information from the termnal buttons of other neurons
synapse
A junction between the terminal button of an axon and the membrand of another neuron.
axon
The long, thin, cylindrical structure that conveys info. from the soma of a neuron to its terminal buttons.
multipolar neuron
A neuron with one axon and many dendrites attached to its soma
Bipolar neuron
A neuron with one axon and one dendrite attached to its soma
Unipolar neuron
A neuron with one axon attached to its soma: the axon divides, with one branch recieving sensory information and the other sending the info to the CNS.
Terminal buttons
The bud at the end of a branch of an axon; forms synapses with another neuron; sends info. to that neuron.
neurotransmitter
A chemical that is released by a terminal button; has an excitatory or inhibitory effect on another neuron.
membrane
a structure consisting principilly of lipid molecules that defines the outer boundaries of a cell and also constitutes many of the cell organelles.
cytoplasm
The viscous, semi-liquid substance contained in the interior of a cell.
mitochondria
An organelle that is responsible for extracting energy from nutrients. Has own DNA sequence and reproduces independently.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
A molecule of prime importance to cellular energy metabolism; its breakdown liberates energy
nucleus
A structure in the central region of a cell, containing the chromosomes.
gene
the functional unit of the chromosome, which directs synthesis of one or more proteins.
cytoskeleton
Formed of microtubules and otehr protein fibers, linked to each other and forming a cohesive mass that gives a cell shape.
enzyme
A molecule that controls a chemical reaction, combining two substances or breaking a substance into two parts. The marriage brokers and divorce judges of the cell.
Axoplasmic transport
An active process by which substances are propelled along microtubules that run the length of the axon.
microtubule
A long strand of bundles of protein filaments arranged around a hollow core; part of the cytoskeleton and involved in transporting substances from place to place within the cell.
astrocyte
A glial cell that provides support for neurons of the CNS, provides nutrients and other substances, and and regulates the chemical composition of extracellular fluid.
oligodendrocyte
A type of glial cell in the CNS that forms myelin sheaths
Myelin Sheath
A sheath the surrounds axons and insulates tham, preventing messages from spreading between adjacent axons.
node of Ranvier
A naked portion of a myelinated axon, between adjacent oligodendroglia or Achwann cells.
microglia
The smallest of glial cells; act as phagocytes and protect the brain from invading microorganisms.
Schwann cell
A cell in teh peripheral nervous system that is wrapped around a myelinated axon, providing one segment of its myelin sheath.
blood-brain barrier
A semi-permeable barrier between the blood and the brain produced by the cells in the walls of the brain's capillaries.
area postrema
A region of the medulla where the blood-brain barrier is weak; poisons can be detected there and induce vomitting.
membrane potential
The electrical charge across a cell membrane; the difference in electrical potential inside and outside the cell.
resting potential
The membrane potential of a neuron when it is not being altered by excitatory or inhibitory postsynaptic potentials; approx. -70mV in the giant squid axon.
depolarization
Reduction (towards zero)of the membrane potential of a cell from its normal resting potential.
hyperpolarization
An increase in the membrane potential of a cell, relative to the normal resting potential.
action potential
The brief electrical impulse that provides the basis for conduction of information along an axon.
threshold of excitation
The calue of the membrane potential that must be reached to produce an action potential.
diffusion
Movement of molecules from refions of high concentration to regions of low concentration.
electrolyte
An aqeous solution of a material that ionizes--namely, a soluble acid, base or salt
ion
A charged molecule. Cations are positively charged, and anions are negatively charged.
electrostatic pressure
The attractive force between atomic particles charged with opposite signs or the repulsive force between atomic particles charged with the same sign.
intracellular fluid
fluid inside the cell; usually contains potassium K+ and organic anions A-.
extracellular fluid
Body fluids outside of the cells. Think sea water...mostly sodium cations NA+ and chloride anions Cl-
sodium-potassium transporter
A protein found in the membrand of all cells that extrudes sodium ions from and transports potassium ions into the cell.
ion channel
A specialized protein molecule that permits specific ions to enter or leave cells.
voltage dependent ion channel
An ion channel that opens or closes according to the value of the membrane potential.
All-or-none law
The principle that once an action potential is triggered in an axon, it is propagated, without decrement, to the end of the fiber.
rate law
The principle that variations in the intensity of a stimulus or other information being transmitted in an axon are represented by variations in the rate at which that axon fires.
saltatory conduction
Conduction of action potentials by myelinated axons. The action potential appears to jump from one node of Ranvier to the next.
postsynaptic potential
Alterations in the membrane potential of a postsynaptic neuron, produced by liberations of neurotransmitter at the synapse.
binding site
The location on a receptor protein to which a ligand binds.
ligand
A chemical that binds with the binding site of a receptor.
dendritic spine
A small bud on the surface of a dendrite, with which a terminal button of another neuron forms a synapse.
Presynaptic membrane
The cell membrane opposite the terminal button in a synapse; the membrane of the cell that receives the message.
synaptic cleft
The space between the presynaptic membrane and the postsynaptic membrane.
synaptic vesicle
A small, hollow, beadlike structure found in terminal buttons; contains molecules of a neurotransmitter.
release zone
A region of the interior of the presynaptic membrane of a synapse to which synaptic vessicles attach and release their neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft.
postsynaptic receptor
A receptor molecule in the postsynaptic membrane of a synapse that contains a binding site for a neurotransmitter.
neurotransmitter-dependent ion channel
An ion channel that opens when a molecule of a neurotransmitter binds with a post-synaptic receptor.
ionotropic receptor
A receptor that contains a binding site for a neurotransmitter and an ion channel that opens when a milecule of the neurotransmitter attaches to the bindng site.
metabotropic receptor
A receptor that contains a binding site for a neurotransmitter; activates an enzyme that begins a series of events that opens an ion channel elsewhere in the membrane of the cell when a molecule of the neurotransmitter attaches to the binding site.
G protein
A protein coupled to a metabotropic receptor; conveys messages to other molecules when a ligand binds with and activates the receptor.
second messenger
A chemical produced when a G-protein activates an enzyme; carries a signal that results in the opening of the ion channel or causes other events to occur in the cell.
excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
An excitatory depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane of a synapse caused by the liberation of a neurotransmitter by the terminal button.
inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)
inhibitory hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane of a synapse caused by the liberation of a neurotransmitter by the terminal button.
reuptake
The reentry of a neurotransmitter just liberated by a terminal button back through its membrane, thus terminating the postsynaptic potential.
enzymatic deactivation
The destruction of a neurotransmitter by an enzyme after its release--for example, the destruction of ACh by AChE
acetylcholine (ACh)
A neurotransmitter found in the brain, spinal cord and parts of the peripheral nervous system; responsible for muscular contraction.
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE)
The enzyme that destroys ACh soon after it is liberated by the terminal buttons thus terminating the postsynaptic potential
neural integration
The process by which inhibitory and excitatory postsynaptic potentials summate and control the rate of firing of a neuron.
Autoreceptor
A receptor molecule located on a neuron that responds to the neurotransmitter released by that neuron.
presynaptic inhibition
The action of a presynaptic terminal button in a axoaxonic synapse; reduces the amount of neurotransmitter released by the postsynaptic terminal button.
presynaptic facilitation
The action of a presynaptic terminal button in an axoaxonic synapse; increases the amount of neurotransmitter released by the postsynaptic terminal button.
neuromodulator
A naturally secreted substance that acts like a neurotransmitter except that it is not restricted to the synaptic cleft but diffuses through the extracellular fluid.
caudal
"Toward the tail"; with respect to the CNS, in a direction along the neuraxis away from the front of the face.
dorsal
"toward the back"; with respect to the CNS, in a direction perpendicular to the neuraxis toward the top of the head or the back.
ventral
"toward the belly"; in a direction perpendicular to the neuraxis toward the bottom of the skull or the front surface of the body.
lateral
Toward the side of the body
medial
toward the middle of the body
ipsilateral
Located on the same side of the body
contralateral
Located on the opposite side of the body.
cross section
With respect to the central nervous system, a slice taken at right to the neuraxis.
frontal section
A slice through the brain parallel to the forehead.
horizontal section
a slice through the brain parallel to the ground.
meninges
The three layers of tissue that encase the CNS: the dura mater, arachnoid membrane, and pia mater.
dura mater
The outermost of the meninges: tough and flexible
arachnoid membrane
The middle layer of the meninges, located between the outer dura mater and inner pia mater.
pia mater
The layer of the meninges that clings to the surface of the brain, thin and delicate.
subarachnoid space
The fluid filled space that cushions the brain; located between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater.
Ventricle
One of the hollow spaces within the brain, filled with CSF
lateral ventricle
One of the two ventricles located in the center of the telencephalon.
third ventricle
The ventricle located in the center of the diencephalon.
cerebral aqueduct
A narrow tube interconnecting the third and fourth ventricles of the brain, located in the center of the mesencephalon.
choroid plexus
The highly vascular tissue that protrudes into the ventricles and produces CSF.
meninges
The three layers of tissue that encase the CNS: the dura mater, arachnoid membrane, and pia mater.
dura mater
The outermost of the meninges: tough and flexible
arachnoid membrane
The middle layer of the meninges, located between the outer dura mater and inner pia mater.
pia mater
The layer of the meninges that clings to the surface of the brain, thin and delicate.
subarachnoid space
The fluid filled space that cushions the brain; located between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater.
cerebral cortex
The outermost layer of gray matter of the cerebral hemispheres.
forebrain
The most rostral of the three major divisions of the brain; includes the telencephalon and diencephalon.
cerebral hemisphere
One of the two major portions of the forebrain, covered by the cerebral cortex.
subcortical region
The region located within the brain, beneath the cortical surface.
sulcus
A groove in the surface of the cerebral hemisphere, smaller than a fissure.
fissure
A major groove in the surface of the brain, larger than a sulcus.
gyrus
A convolution of the cortex of the cerebral hemispheres, separated by sulci or fissures.
calcarine fissure
A fissure located in the occipital loce on the medial surface of the brain; most of the primary visual cortex is located along its upper and lower banks.
primary auditory cortex
The region of the superior temporal love whose primary input is from the auditory system.
lateral fissure
The fissure that separates the temporal lobe from the overlying frontal and parietal lobes.
fissure
A major groove in the surface of the brain, larger than a sulcus.
gyrus
A convolution of the cortex of the cerebral hemispheres, separated by sulci or fissures.
calcarine fissure
A fissure located in the occipital loce on the medial surface of the brain; most of the primary visual cortex is located along its upper and lower banks.
primary auditory cortex
The region of the superior temporal love whose primary input is from the auditory system.
lateral fissure
The fissure that separates the temporal lobe from the overlying frontal and parietal lobes.
primary somatosensory cortex
The region of teh anterior parietal lobe whose primary input is from the somatosensory system.
central sulcus
The sulcus that separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe.
primary motor cortex
The region of the posterior frontal lobe that contains neurons that control movements of skeletal muscles.
frontal lobe
The anterior portion of the cerebral cortex, rostral to the parietal lobe and dorsal to the temporal lobe.
parietal lobe
The region of teh cerebral cortex caudal to the frontal lobe and dorsal to the temporal lobe.
Temporal lobe
The region of the cerebral cortex rostral to the occipital lobe and ventral to the parietal and frontal lobe.
occipital lobe
The region of the cerebral cortex caudal to the parietal and temporal lobes.
sensory association cortex
Those regions of the cerebral cortex that receive info. from the regions of primary sensory cortex.
motor association cortex
The region of the frontal lobe rostral to the primary motor cortex, also known as the premotor cortex.
prefrontal cortex
The region of the frontal lobe rostral to the motor assoc. cortex.
corpus callosum
A large bundle of axons that interconnects corresponding regions of the association cortex on each side of the brain.
neocortex
The phylogenetically newest cortex, including the primary sensory cortex, primary motor cortex and association cortex.
limbic cortex
Phylogenetically old cortex, located at the medial edge ("limbus") of the cerebral hemispheres; part of the limbic system
cingulate gyrus
A strip of limbic cortex lying along the lateral walls of the groove separating the cerebral hemispheres, just above the corpus callosum.
limbic system
A group of brain regions including the anterior thalamic nuclei, amygdala, hippocampus, limbic cortex, and parts of the hypothalamus, as well as their interconnecting bundles.
hippocampus
A forebrain structure of the temporal lobe, constituting an important part of the limbic system; includes the hippocampus proper, dentate gyrus, and subiculum.
amygdala
A structure in the interior of the rostral temporal lobe, containing a set of nuclei; part of the limbic system.
fornix
A fiber bundle that connects the hippocampus with other parts of the brain, including the mammillary bodies of the hypothalamus; part of limbic system.
basal ganglia
A group of subcortical nuclei in the telencephalon, the caudate nucleus, the globus pallidus, and the putamen; important parts of the motor system.
diencephalon
A region of the forebrain surrounding the third ventricle, includes the thalamus and the hypothalamus.
thalamus
The largest portion of the diencephalon, located above the hypothalamus, contains nuclei that project info to specific regions of the cerebral cortex and receive info from it.
lateral geniculate nucleus
A group of cell bodies within the lateral geniculate body of the thalamus that receives fibers from the retina and projects fibers to the primary visual cortex.
medial geniculate nucleus
A group of cell bodies within the medial geniculate body of the thalamus; receives fibers from the auditory system and projects fibers to the primary auditory cortex.
ventrolateral nucleus
A nucleus of the thalamus that receives inputs from the cerebellum and sends axons to the primary motor cortex.
hypothalamus
The group of nuclei of the diencephalon situated beneath the thalamus; involved in reg. of autonomic nervous system, control of the anterior and posterior pituitary glands and integration of species typical behaviors.
optic chiasm
An X shaped connection between the optic nerves, located below the base of the brain, just anterior to the pituiary gland.
anterior pituiatary gland
The anterior part of the pituiatary gland, an endocrine gland whose secretions are controlled by the hypothalamic hormones.
posterior pituitary gland
The posterior part of the pituitary gland; an endocrine gland that contains hormone-secreting terminal buttons of axons whose cell bodies lie within the hypothalamus.
midbrain (mesencephalon)
The mesencephalon; the central of the three major divisions of the brain. surrounds the cerebral aqueduct: includes the tectum and tegmentum.
Tectum
The dorsal part of the midbrain' includes superior and inferior colliculi.
brain stem
The stem of the brain, from the medulla to the diencephalon, excluding the cerebellum
tegmentum
The ventrla part of the midbrain; includes periaqueductal gray matter, reticular formation, red nucleus and substantia nigra
reticular formation
A large network of neural tissue located in the central region of the brain stem, from the medulla to the diencephalon.
periaqueductal gray matter
The region of the midbrain surrounding the cerebral aqueduct: contains neural circuits involved in species-typical behaviors.
red nucleus
A large nucleus of the midbrain that receives inputs from the cerebellum and motor cortex and sends axons to motor neurons in the spinal cord.
substantia nigra
A darkly stained region of the tegmentum that contains neurons that communicate with the caudate nucleus and putamen in the basal ganglia.
hindbrain
The most caudal of the three major divisions of the brain; includes the metencephalon and myelencephalon
cerebellum
A major part of the brain located dorsal to the pons, containinf the two cerebellar hemispheres, covered with the cerebellar cortex; an important component of the motor system.
cerebellar cortex
The cortex that covers the surface of the cerebellum.
pons
The region os the metencephalon rostral to the medulla, caudal to the midbrain and central to the cerebellum
medulla oblongata
The most caudal portion of the brain; located in the myelencephalon, immediately rostral to the spinal cord.
spinal root
A bundle of axons surrounded by connective tissue that occurs in pairs, which fuse and form a spinal nerve.
dorsal root
The spinal root that contains incoming (afferent) sensory fibers
ventral root
The spinal root that contains outgoing (efferent) motor fibers.
cranial nerve
A peripheral nerve attached directly to the brain. 12
vagus nerve
The largest of the cranial nerves, conveying efferent fibers of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system to organs of the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
somatic nervous system
The part of the peripheral nercous sustem that controls the movement of skeletal muscles or transmits somatosensory info to the CNS
Autonomic nervous system
The portion of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's vegetative functions.
sympathetic division
nodules that contain synapses between preganglionic and postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system.
parasympathetic division
The portion of the ANS that controls functions that occur during a relaxed state.
pharmokinetics
The process by which drugs are absorbed, distributed within the body, metabolized and excreted.
intraperitoneal (IP) injection
injection of a substance into the peritoneal cavity-the space that surrounds the stomach, intestines, liver and other ab orgs.
introcerebral administration
administration of a substance directly into the brain
intracerebrocentrucular (ICV) administration
administation of a substance into one of the cerebral ventricles.
dose response curve
A graph of the magnitude of an effect of a drug as a function of the amount of drug administered.
therapeutic index
The ratio between the dose that produces the desired effect in 50 percent of the animals and the dose that produces toxic effects in 50 percent of the animals.
affinity
The readiness with which two molecules join together.
antagonist
A drug that opposes or inhibits the effects of a particular neurotransmitter on the post synaptic cell
agonist
A drug that facilitates the effects of a particular neurotransmitter on the postsynaptic cell.
direct agonist
A drug that binds with and activates a receptor.
receptor blocker (direct antagonist)
A drug that binds with a receptor but does not activate it; prevents the natural ligand from binding with the receptor.
noncompetitive binding
Binding of a drug to a site on a receptor; does not interfere with the binding site for the principal ligand.
indirect antagonist
A drug that attaches to a binding site on a receptor and interferes with the action of the receptor; does not interfere with the binding site for the principal ligand.
indirect agonist
A drug that attaches to a binding site on a receptor and facilitates the action of the receptor; does not interfere with the binding site for the principal ligand.
acetyl-CoA
A cofactor that aupplies acetate for the synthesis of acetylcholine
choline acetyltranferase (ChAT)
The enzyme that transfers the acetate ion from acetyl coenzyme A to choline, producing the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
botulinum toxin
An acetylcholine antagonist; prevents release by terminal buttons
black widow spider venom
A poison produced by the black widow spider that triggers the release of acetylcholine
neostigmine
A drug that inhibits the activity of acetylcholintransferase...thus inhibiting synthesis of acetylcholine
nicotinic receptor
An ionotropic acetylcholine receptor that is stimulated b nicotine and blocked by curare.
muscarinic receptor
A metabotropic acetylcholine receptor that is stimulated by muscarine and blocked by atropine.
monoamine
A class of amines that includes indolamines such as serotonin and catecholamines such as dopamine, norephinephrine, and epinephrine
catecholamine
A class of amines that includes the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine
dopamine
a neurotransmitter: implicated in movement, attention, learnine, and the reinforcing effects of drugs
L Dopa
The levorotatory form of DOPA; the precursor of the catecholamines; often used for treatment of Parkinson's b/c of its effects as a dopamine agonist
nigrostriatal system
A system of neurons originating in the ventral tegmental area and terminating in teh nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and hippocampus
mesolimbic system
A system of dopaminergic neurons originating in the ventral tegmental area and terminating in the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and hippocampus
mesocortical system
A system of dopaminergic neurons originating in the ventral tegmental area and terminating in the prefrontal cortex.
AMPT
A drug that block the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase and thus interferes with the synthesis of the catecholamines
reserpine
A drug that interferes with the storage of monoamines in synaptic vesicles.
methylphenidate
a drug that inhibits the reuptake of dopamine
monoamine oxidase (MAO)
A class of enzymes that destroy the monoamines: dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin
deprenyl
A drug that block the activity of MAO-B; acts as a dopamine agonist
chlorpromazine
A drug that reduces the symptoms of schizophrenia by blocking dopamine D2 receptors.
Clozapine
A drug that reduces the symptoms of schizophrenia; apparently by blocking dopamine D4 receptors
norepinephrine
one of the catecholamines, a neurotransmitter found in the brain and in teh sympathetic division of the ANS. Implicated in vigilance and attentiveness to events in environment
idazoxan
A drug that blocks the presynaptic noradrenergic a2 receptors and hence acts as anagonist, stimulating synthesis and release of NE
serotonin (5-HT)
An indolamine neurotransmitter; implicated in regulation of mood, eating, sleeping, arousal, and regulation of pain
PCPA
A drug that inhibits the activity of tryptophan hydroxylase and thus interferes with the sythesis of serotonin
fluoxetine
A drug that inhibits the reuptake of 5-HT
fenfluramine
A drug that stimulates the release of serotonin
glutamate
An amino acid; the most important excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain
NMDA receptor
A specialized ionotropic glutamate receptor that controls a calcium channel that is normally blcoked by Mg2+ ions; has several other binding sites
AMPA receptor
An ionotropic glutamate receptor that controls a sodium channel; stimulated by AMPA
kainate receptor
An ionotropic glutamate receptor that controls a sodium channel stimulated by kainic acid.
metabotropic glutamate receptor
A category of metabotropic receptors that are sensitive to glutamate
GABA
An amino acid, the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain
anxiolytic
An anxiety reducing effect
benzodiazepine
A category of anxiolytic drugs; an indirect agonist for the GABA A receptor
glycine
an amino acid, an important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the lower brain stem and spinal cord.
adenosine
A nucleoside, a combo of ribose and adenine; serves as a neuromodulator in the brain
positive symptom
A symptom of schizophrenia evident by its presence: delusions, hallucinations, disordered thoughts, and often bizzare behaviors.
negative symptoms
A symptom of schizophrenia characterized by the absence of behaviors that are normally present; social withdrawal, lack of affect, and reduced motivation.
chlorpromazine
A dopamine receptor blocker; a commonly prescribed antischizophrenic drug.
clozapine
An atypical antipsychotic drug; blocks D4 receptors in the nucleus accumbens.
seasonality effect
The increased incidence of schizophrenia in people born during late winter ane early spring.
hypofrontality
Decreased activity of the prefrontal cortex; believed to be responsible for the negative synptoms of schizophrenia.
tricyclic antidepressant
A class of drugs, used to treat depression; inhibits the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin; named for the molecular structure
specific serotonin reuptake inhibitor
A drug that inhibits the reuptake of serotonin without affecting the reuptake of other neurotransmitters.
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
A brief electrical shock; applied to the head, that results in an electrical seizure, used therapeutically to alleviate severe depression
carbamazepine
A drug(trade name: Tegretol) that is used to treat seizures originating from a focus, generally in the medial temporal lobe
monoamine hypothesis
A hypothesis that depression is caused by a low level of activity of one or more monoaminergic synapses.
5-HIAA
A breakdown product of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT)
tryptophan depletion procedure
A procedure involving a low-tryptophan diet and a tryptophan free amini acid "cocktail" that lowers brain tryptophan and consequently decreases the synthesis of 5-HT
anticipatory anxiety
A fear of having a panic attack; may lead to the development of agorophobia (fear of open spaces)
cingulotomy
The surgical destruction of the cingulum bundle, which connects the prefrontal cortex with the limbic system; helps to reduce intense anxiety and the symptoms of OCD
fight or flight response
A species typical response preparatory to fighting or fleeing; thought to be responsible for some of the deleterious effects of stressful situations on health.
glucocorticoid
One of a group of hormones of the adrenal cortex that are important in protein and carbohydrate metabolism, secreted especially in times of stress.
corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
A hypothalamic hormone that stimulates the anteriory pituitary gland to secrete ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone).
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
A hormone released by the anterior pituitary gland in response to CRH; stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce glucocorticoids.
coping response
A response through which an organism can avoid, escape from, or minimize an aversive stimulus; reduces the stressful effects of an aversive stimulus.
antigen
A protein present on a microorganism that permits the immune system to recognize the microorganism as an invader.
antibody
A protein produced by a cell of the immune system that recognizes antigens present on invading microorganisms.
negative reinforcement
The removal or refuction of an aversive stimulus that is contigent on a particular response, whith an attendant increase in the frequency of that response.
naltrexone
A drug that blocks mu opiate receptors; antagonizes the reinforcing and sedative effects of opiates.