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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
AMPLITUDE
A sound wave's intensity.
LOUDNESS
Perception of the intensity of a sound. (Not the same as amplitude.)
FREQUENCY
Number of compressions per second for a sound measured in Hz.
PITCH
Perception of a sound.

Positively correlated to frequency.
TYMPANIC MEMBRANE
A.K.A. eardrum.

Vibrates at the frequency of the sound wave that hits it.

Attatched to three small bones (hammer, anvil, stirrup) that transmit vibrations to the oval window.
OVAL WINDOW
Membrane in the inner ear.
COCHLEA
Snail-shaped structure in the inner ear filled with fluid.

Fluid is set in motion when the stirrup makes the oval window vibrate.
HAMMER
ANVIL
STIRRUP
3 bones in the inner ear.

Connects to the eardrum and the oval window.
SCALA VESTIBULI
SCALA MEDIA
SCALA TYMPANI
3 long fluid filled tunnerls in the cochlea.
FREQUENCY THEORY
Concept that pitch perception depends on the differences in the frequency of action potentials by auditory neurons.
BASILAR MEMBRANE
Floor of the scala media in the cochlea.

Vibrates in synchrony with the soundwaves.
PRIMARY AUDITORY CORTEX
Area of the temporal lobes where cells respond best to tones of a particular frequency.

Damage = deafness
TONOTOPIC MAP
Map of the primary auditory cortex that shows which cortical area responds best to what sound frequency.
CONDUCTIVE DEAFNESS
A.K.A. middle ear deafness.

Happens if the three bones in the middle ear don't transmit sound waves correctly to the cochlea. Correctable.
NERVE DEAFNESS
A.K.A. inner ear deafness.

Result of damage to the cochlea, hair cells, or auditory nerves.

Varies in degree and can be in only one part of the cochlea, resulting in deafness to certain sound frequencies.
TINNITUS
Frequent or constant ringing in the ears.

Often experienced by people with nerve/inner ear deafness.
SOUND SHADOW
cue for localizing high frequency sounds.

Wavelength shorter than the head width makes the sound louder in the closer ear.
TIME OF ARRIVAL
Cue for localizing high frequency sounds based on when the sound reached the closer ear.

Useful for localizing sudden onset sounds.
PHASE DIFFERENCE
Cue for localizing low frequency sounds based on when a soundwave's 2 consecutive peaks strike the 2 ears out of phase.
MECHANIAL SENSES
Respond to pressure, bending, or other receptor distortions. Touch/pain/body sensations.
VESTIBULAR ORGAN
Adjacent to cochlea.

Monitors head movement and directs compensatory eye movement.

Helps maintain balance.
SEMI-CIRCULAR CANALS
Located in the vestibular organ on 3 different planes.

Filled with a jelly-like substance and lined with hair cells sensitive to the direction and tilt of the head.
SOMATOSENSORY SYSTEM
Sensation of the body and its movements, including discriminative touch, deep pressure, cold, warmth, pain, itch, tickle, and the position and movement of joints.
FREE NERVE ENDING
Somatosensory receptor.

Unmyelinated/thinly myselinated axons near the base of hairs and in the skin that respond to pain, warmth, and cold.
HAIR FOLLICLE RECEPTORS
Somatosensory receptor located in hair covered skin that responds to the movement of hairs.
MEISSNER'S CORPSUCLES
Somatosensory receptor located in hairless areas that respond to sudden displacement of skin and low frequency vibrations. (flutter)
PACINIAN CORPSUCLES
Somatosensory receptor located in hairless and hairy skin that respond to sudden displacement of skin and high frequency vibrations.
MERKEL'S DISKS
Somatosensory receptor located in hairy and hairless skin tat resonds to indentation of skin.
RUFFINI ENDINGS
Somatosensory receptor located in hairy and hairless skin that responds to the stretch of skin.
KRAUSE END BULBS
Somatosensory receptor located mostly/entirely in hairless areas and possibly genitals.
SPINAL NERVES
Nerves that convey information between the spinal cord and sensory receptors or muscles in the periphery.
DERMATOME
Area of of skin connected to a specific sensory spinal nerve.
SUBSTANCE P
Neurotransmitter released in conjunction with glutamate in response to strong pain. Without substance P, increased intensity of pain cannot be detected.
OPIOD MECHANISMS
Brain's mechanism for blocking extreme or prolonged pain.

Responds to opiate drugs and similar chemicals
ENDORPHINS
Brain chemicals that activate the same receptors as morphine.
GATE THEORY
The assumption that stimulation of certain non pain axons in the skin or brain can inhibit transmission of pain messages in the spinal cord.
PERIAQUADUCTAL GRAY AREA
The area of the brain stem that, when activated, assist in closing the pain gates.
CAPSAICIN
Chemical found in peppers that makes them taste "hot."

Stimulates neurons to release substance P.
PLACEBO
A drug or procedure that has no pharmacalogical effect.
LABELED-LINE PRINCIPLE
Concept that each receptor responds to a limited range of stimuli and has a direct line to the brain.
ACROSS-FIBER PATTERN PRINCPLE
Concept that each receptor responds to a wide range of stimuli and contributes to the perception of every stimulus in the system.
PAPPILAE
Structures on the surface of the tongue that contain tastebuds.
ADAPTATION
Decreased response to a stimulus as a result to recent exposure to it.
CROSS-ADAPTION
Reduced response to one taste after exposure to another.
NUCLEUS OF TRACTUS SOLITARIUS

(NTS)
Structure in the medulla where taste nerves are projected.
SUPERTASTERS
Percentage of a population who have a very high sensitivity to taste.
OLFACTION
Sense of smell.
OLFACTORY CELLS
Neurons responsible for smell.
ANOSMIA
General lack of olfaction/smell.
SPECIFIC ANOSMIA
Inability to smell a single chemical.
VOMERONASAL ORGAN
Set of receptors located near but seperate from the olfactory receptors.

Specialized to respond to pheremones.
PHEREMONES
Chemicals released by an animal that tend to affect the behavior of other animals of the same species.
SPATIAL NEGLECT
Tendency to ignore the left side of the body and its surrounding as a result from damage to the right hemisphere. (Often, the Superior temporal gyrus.)
ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER

(ADHD)
Characterized by attention deficit hyperactivity, implusivity, mood swings, short temper, high sensitivity to stress, and impaired ability to make and follow plans.