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95 Cards in this Set

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Is it easy to change homeostasis?
No, it takes a lot of effort to change homeostasis
What is the basic property of living?
Maintaining physical homeostasis
What is the basic motivating property of cognition?
maintaing current cognitive set (homeostasis)
What is the basic motivating property of emotion?
maintaining affective balance (homeostasis)
What is the feeling of satiation an example of?
having returned to homeostasis
________ (eyes/ears/nose) give the 1st units of COGNITIVE STRUCTURE when combined w/motor effects. Give cognitive feedback
Exteroceptors
________ (glucose receptors, from organs, glands, muscles) gives the most basic element of EXPERIENCE OF SELF (including emotional experience). Give physiological feedback
Interoceptors
Is energy a big concern if you stay within your normal limits?
Nope; homeostasis isn't a big concern then. HOWEVER we aren't there long
What induces a need state? How do we experience it?
falling out of homeostasis; we experience it as a drive state
What do drive states direct?
Action to re-achieve homeostasis
The specific deficit/imbalance that needs to be restored or damage results:
a. Drive
b. Need
c. Motive
D. Satiation
B. need
The experience/sensation of a need; usually uncomfortable - motivator for action to reduce state
a. Drive
b. Need
c. Motive
d. Satiation
a. drive
The goal to relieve the drive or fulfill the need; can be existential or value system
a. Drive
b. Need
c. Motive
d. Satiation
c. Motive
The experience of achievement of the motive; usually comfortable; act as de-motivator
a. Drive
b. Need
c. Motive
d. Satiation
d. Satiation
What are the simplest need states?
the immediate biological drives such as:
elimination, oxygen, blood flow, thermoregulation, elimination, basic system integrity/function
Automatic functions - what parts of the brain?

What are their motivators?
Usually lower reflexive brain structures like medullary; life essentially forces these drives so there aren't really motivators
T/F - most basic motivators reflect immediate biological drives
FALSE. Most basic motivators reflect less immediate biological NEED STATES (food, procreation, survival, water)
T/F most of the basic motivators are attributed to higher brain structures
TRUE
What produces stress in the system?

What happens if that stress is maintained for a while?
Moving out of homeostasis

When excessive/prolonged systems fail & disease can occur
What the parts of the brainstem?
pons, medulla, cranial nerve nuclei
What is the part of the brain that monitors/regulates automatic body functions?
brainstem
What part of the brain covers memory, emotionality, elements of the self?
Limbic system
What is the General Adaptation System (GAS)?

Who came up with this
stress response of alarm (most stressors abate w/in this first stage), adaptation, exhaustion

Hans Seyle
What part of the brain covers the ANS and emotionality?
Hypothalamus
If something traumatizes the hypothalamus what happens?
general malaise, like pms with a migraine,
What are the parts of the brain you DO NOT MESS WITH?
hypothalamus, cerebellum, brain stem
What are the 2 major components of the ANS?
Parasympathetic NS
Sympathetic NS
This part of the ANS is designed to store energy, heal injury, grow, reproduce (ie energy conserving, digestive)
Parasympathetic NS
Where do most of the NTs come from?
(locus of cirilicus, which is the implementer of the sleep/wake cycle, for example)
Brainstem
What modifies sensory input in resposne to stress?

hint: it thinks through stress
the cerebellum
Where is the reticular activating system?
brainstem
What is the main controler of the ANS (hormonal stress, etc)?

What assists this structure?
Hypothalamus

Aided by the limbic system
What coordinates with the brainstem for internal body integrity?
hypothalamus
What part of the ANS is designed to expend energy/prepare for conflict/ergotropic action (fight, flee, survive)
Sympathetic NS
What is the seat of primary motivators, such as first experience of hunger, thirst fear?
the hypothalamus
What part of the brain is the base of physical elements of emotionality expression and experience?

(throat constriction, hunger pains, etc)
Hypothalamus

TALE - temp, appetite, libido, emotion
What are the three major parts of the hypothalamus?
Lateral hypothalamus
ventromedial nucleus
Lateral & Medial preoptic nucleus
What does stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus trigger?
eating behavior; influences types of food cravings (carbs, etc)
What does the ventromedial nucleus control?

What does stimulation cause?
satiation

Stimulation - cessation of ANY kind of consumatory behavior
What are the lateral preoptic nucleus and medial preoptic nucleus?

What are they in charge of?
parts of the hypothalamus

In charge of: fluid regulation
-thirst, sweat, & sex
Which hypothalamic nuclei control eating/energy use/fat storage?
LH & VMH nuclei
What connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus?
the Infundibulum
An emergency happens - like a bird hits a window- and your ANS is excessively activated/imbalanced. What part of your ANS was activated?

If it stays overactivated, what might happen?
Sympathetic NS

Overactivated--> problems
What happens when the sympathetic NS kicks in?
deactivation of vegetative systems (occurs when almost anything happens)
energy is expended

*potential to exhaust system
What happens when the parasympathetic NS is activated?
TRICK Q! - Can't be activated; it's passive and just occurs when sympathetic NS isn't activated

-energy stores are rebuilt and healing occurs
- digestion, sexual activity, immune system functioning
What part of the hypothalamus controls ANS responses during sex?
Anterior & Preoptic nuclei
What part of the ANS is responsible for drinking/water regulation?
a. LH
b. VMH
c. Anterior
d. Preoptic
c & d
anterior pituitary & preoptic nuclei
What part of the ANS is responsible for drinking/water regulation?
a. LH
b. VMH
c. Anterior
d. Preoptic
c & d
anterior pituitary & preoptic nuclei
What are the 7 pituitary hormones associated with the Anterior Pituitary?
Somatotropin (STH)
Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)
Thyrotropin (TSH)
Prolactin
FSH
LH
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
Where does activation for the sympathetic nervous system occur? Does this happen at once or can parts be activated separately?
- along the paraspinal sympathetic in the thoracic & lumbar

- activated all at once
Where does activation for the parasympathetic nervous system occur?

Does this happen all at once or part by part?
In the Cranial Sacral areas

- only the systems that need to be activated are activated
What lobe is(are) the pituitary gland in?
the anterior & posterior lobes
Changes in this gland can look like personality changes
the pituitary gland
What hormones are produced by the posterior lobe of the pituitary?
a. Somatotropin & Thyrotropin
b. Vasopression & Prolactin
c. Oxytocin & Vasopression
d. Oxytocin & Adrenocortiotropin
Oxytocin & Vasopression (ADH Antidiuretic hormone)
What part of the brain is the sensory relay from peripheral receptors to primary cortices?
a. Hypothalamus
b. Limbic System
c. Medulla
d. Thalamus
d. thalamus
What sense doesn't the thalamus perceive?
a. smell
b. sight
c. sound
d. touch
e. pain
smell;

the thalamus perceives pain, sight, sound, and touch
What do Churchland (& others) hypothesize that the thalamus plays a critical role in?
consciousness
What part of the brain is in charge of ''muscle memory"/motor learning and fine motor?
basal ganglia
This growth hormone affects protein, lipid, carb, & calcium metabolism.
a. Somatotropin (STH)
b. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)
c. Thyrotropin (TSH)
d. Prolactin (Leuteotropic hormone)
e. FSH
f. LH
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
Somatatropin STH
In adults, too much of this causes Acromegaly & too little causes Simmond's Disease (hypopituitarism)
Somatatropin STH
This regulates activity of the adrenal glands (primarily cortisol)
a. Somatotropin (STH)
b. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)
c. Thyrotropin (TSH)
d. Prolactin (Leuteotropic hormone
e. FSH
f. LH
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
b. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)
This regulates thyroxin secretion by the thyroid
a. Somatotropin (STH)
b. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)
c. Thyrotropin (TSH)
d. Prolactin (Leuteotropic hormone)
e. FSH
f. LH
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
c. Thyrotropin TSH
This promotes growth of breast tissue and maintains lactation. Functions in secretion of progesterone & is stimulated by sucking.
a. Somatotropin (STH)
b. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)
c. Thyrotropin (TSH)
d. Prolactin (Leuteotropic hormone)
e. FSH
f. LH
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
d. Prolactin (Leuteotropic hormone)
What are the gonadotropic hormones that regulate ovary and testicle development?
a. Somatotropin (STH)
b. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)
c. Thyrotropin (TSH)
d. Prolactin (Leuteotropic hormone)
e. FSH
f. LH
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
FSH & LH
Which hormone regulates pigmenting cells in skin?
a. Somatotropin (STH)
b. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)
c. Thyrotropin (TSH)
d. Prolactin (Leuteotropic hormone)e. FSH
f. LH
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH)
What are the 2 hormones controlled by the posterior pituitary?
Oxytocin
Vasopressin
Which hormone stimulates uterine contractions in pregnancy, reduces bleeding, and releases milk into ducts (thru suckling)?
Oxytocin
Which hormone
-reduces water loss through the kidneys
-stimulates digestive smooth muscle
-helps constrict smaller arteries to inc blood pressure?
Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone ADH)
What can deficits in Vasopressin (ADH) lead to?
diabetes insipidus (characterized by excessive water loss through peeing)
What might growth in the hypothalamus indicate?
That there is cancer in other parts of the body
What do the lateral & medial preoptic nuclei control?
fluid regulation; thirst, sweat, sex
Cognitive Homeostasis
1. Maintain a sense of continuity & control
2. Adapt to changes in status quo
What are the two systems in the brain that kick in when an event occurs that violates a person's cognitive baseline? These produce an emotional reaction
Medial system
Lateral system
What is the purpose of the medial system in the brain?
to acknowledge the familiar, sense of continuity, produce a pleasant sensation when all is as it "should be"
What is the purpose of the lateral system in the brain?
to recognize dissonance, potential threat, novelty, and disagreement;
What does a person's emotional reaction to being thrown out of cognitive homeostasis tell you?
1. How they preceive teh event
2. Their expectations of outcomes
3. Entire history with similar events
What does the initial emotional reaction to a stressor reflect?
interplay between medial and lateral systems
What do emotional responses reflect?
The person's psychological & physical behavioral actions after the reaction to try to get the person back to baseline
What was Selye's "one system" model?
Suggested that stress arises out of a person's response to an event

stressor-> preception -> anterior -> adrenal cortex -> glucocorticoids
When ppl are confronted by substantial change by a threat to homeostasis or by disablement, they react w/a _________ physiological pattern called stress.
non-specific
What are the three stages of the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)?
1. Alarm
2. Adaptation or resistance
3. Exhaustation
What is the importance of the "two system model"
recognizes the interplay btwn brain & body

-allows more for the inclusion of the nervous system
What is the 2 System Model
Stressor--> perception -->

1. Anterior Pituitary - adrenal cortex- glucocorticoids

2. Sympathetic NS --> adrenal medulla --> NOREPI & EPI
Autonomic Nervous System
-largely self-regulating
-coord's internal activity to maintain physical homeostasis thru direct neural & diffuse hormonal influs
-principle system of emotional expression
The ____ ______ networks are primarily responsible for ANS operation
Limbic Hypothalamic
What regulates teh internal environment diffusely?
Pituitary gland
What is the cranio-sacral branch of the ANS?
Parasympathetic NS
Which part of the ANS is involved in sexual functioning & cranial nerve activities involved w/emotional expression?
parasympathetic
What is the thoraco-lumbar branch of the ANS?

Hint: this is the one that tries to go back to homeostasis when something violates it
sympathetic NS
Which part of the ANS is the stress response attributed to?
sympathetic NS
T/F many of the stress-related diseases, growth anomalies, sex dysfunctions, attitudinal dysfunctions, & infections are due to excessive sympathetic activation
TRUE
What was Autonomic Balance used to describe?
An individual's natural predisposition ot respond in one system or another
A-bar
a measure of ratio of Sympathetic to Parasympathetic activation
A-bar ratio of <70
Sympathetic dominance
A-bar ratio of >70
Parasympathetic dominance