Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/82

Click to flip

82 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How much Fluid is Intracellular?
2/3
how much fluid is interstitial?
1/3
consistency is jelly like
what do body fluids transport?
gases
nutrients
wastes (urea, etc)
dissolved in solution electrolytes form ___ charged ions?
negative
one + charge
monovalent
two or more ++ charges
divalent
Intracellular fluid makeup?
little Calcium, sodium, cloride, bicarb, phosphorous
moderate magnesium
LOTS potassium
Extracellular fluid makeup?
low potassium, magnesium, phosphorous, calcium
moderate bicarb
LOTS sodium and chloride
osmosis
water movement from low conc to high conc
what does osmosis attempt to do?
dilute high concentrations
concentration of electrolytes in fluid
osmotic pressure
aka
tonicity
diffusion
electrolyte movement from high conc to low conc
what is diffusion trying to do?
balance concentration gradient
isotonic
"perfect" same osmotic pressure b/w cell and ECF
examples of isotonic solutions?
NS
D5W
LR
D51/4NS
hypotonic
solution has lower osmotic pressure than the cell

therefore the cell will swell as all the fluid comes from outside the cell inside trying to dilute the high concentration inside
hypertonic
solution outside has a higher concentration than the cell

therefore the cell will shrivel as the fluid leaves the cell to dilute the solution outside
how much fluid is weight in normal adults?
60%
what is in the ECF?
interstitial fluid
plasma
transcellular
where does fluid exchange occur
capillaries
what is the reserve fluids incase vascular volume falls?
interstitial fluids
where are interstitial fluids?
in the tissue between cells
what is the fluid around vital organs?
transcellular fluid

"pleural sacs"
carries blood cells throughout the body, helps to keep vascular volume up

therefore lots of it = high BP
plasma
palpable swelling d/t increased interstitial volume
edema
systemic causes of edema
heart dx
kidney dx
pregnancy
burns
tx of edema
ted hose, diuretics, and elevation
albumin
helps draw fluid from third spacing, and interstitial
what does your BMP include?
Na
Cl
K
CO2 (venous)
Glucose
BUN
Cr
Ca
Isotonic Fluid Volume Deficit causes
vomiting
diarrhea
third spacing
polyuria
glucose in urine
Isotonic Fluid Volume Deficit
lose NaCl = lose water = hypovolemia
Isotonic Fluid Excess causes
heart failure
corticosteroids
isotonic fluid excess
increased volume of NaCl and water = hyervolemia
what regulates Na+
the kidneys
what does the RAA system do?
increase sodium and water retention
vasoconstrict

feels like it needs to save as much fluid as possible

secretes angiotensin 1 which converts to angiotensin 2 in the prescense of ACE. angiotensin 2 causes increased readsorption of Na+

signals aldosterone to be secreted from adrenal cortex which helps adsorption of Na+ and increases secretion of K+
normal Na+ values
135-145
Hyponatremia causes
elderly, water intoxication, dec renal fxn, heavy exercise in hot weather
hyponatremia s and s
muscle cramping
weakness
fatigue
hypernatremia
increased Na+ therefore cells shrivel

not a common disorder

usually elevated na+ signals thirst, drink water and its fixed.
what causes thirst?
cellular dehydration (high Na+)
low blood volume
what causes hypodipsia
brain injury/ disorder
what causes systematic polydipsia
diarrhea, DM
what causes inappropriate polydipsia
renal or heart failure
what causes compulsive polydipsia
psych meds and smoking
where is ADH produced?
hypothalamus
where does ADH travel to and released into circulation
post pituitary
what increases ADH
pain
nausea
surgery
trauma
nicotine
what decreases ADH
alcohol
caffine
what is diabetes insipidus
deficient or decreased response to ADH

therefore you pee alot

or d/t hypokalemia
hypercalcemia
lithium
syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH
ADH is oversecreted therefore retain water and Na+
SIADH s and s
low urine output
low BUN, Serum Na+, serum osmolality d/t blood being thin
Urine is THICK
normal K+ level
3.5-5
what regulates K+
the kidneys via aldosterone

very sensitive to change
hypokalemia causes
poor dietary imput
redistributed b/w ECF and ICF
loss in GI tract
burns
increased aldosterone
hypokalemia s and s
EKG has a U wave
post ventricular contraction
arrhythmias
fatigue
muscle cramps
hyperkalemia causes
almost always renal failure
hyperkalemia s and s
muscle weakness
dyspnea
arrhythmias peaked or tented t waves
Hypocalcemia causes
renal failure, parathyroid problems
hypocalcemia s and s
increased excitation of nerve and muscle cells
parasthesia
tetany
seizures
death if severe
hypercalcemia causes
cancers, bone wasting, osteoporosis, hyperparathyroidism
hypercalcemia s and s
decreased excitation of nerve and muscle cells
change in personality
arrhythmia
normal magnesium level
1.8-2.7
what does magnesium do?
essential for every step related to replication and transcription of DNA
hypomagnesemia causes
insuff. intake
diarrhea
NG suctioning
excessive calcium
alcohol
hypomagnesemia s and s
altered LOC
muscular weakness
Chvostek's sign
trousseau's sign
increased HR and BP
torsades de pointe
chvostek's sign
tap cheek and it twitches bad
trousseau's sign
funky hand thing
hypermagnesemia causes
renal insuff
excess Mg intake
hypermagnesemia s and s
decreased deep tendon reflex
low BP, arrythmias
fastest way to correct pH?
carbonic acid- bicarb buffer system
carbonic acid- bicarb buffer system (chemical)
excretion of CO2 and excretion of H and HCO3
plasma protein-gamma globulins
bind with or release H ion

short term
lungs
increase in H will cause
increase in CO2 (in blood stream), RR, and TV
lungs
decrease in H will cause
decrease CO2, RR, TV
Kidneys
If blood too acidic (3)
1. bicarb absorbed into blood
2. phosphate binds c H
3. ammonia binds c H
Kidneys
If blood too basic
bicarb excreted in urine
perfect pH?
7.4
By products of metabolism
volatile carbonic acid (H2CO3)
equal with CO2
diff. to measure so we measure CO2
paCO2 level, etc.
35-45
by product of respiration
dissolved in plasma
HCO3
bicarb
22-28
controlled by kidneys even though you get it through CO2
lungs compensate for?
metabolic problems
kidneys compensate for?
lung problems