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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
biogeochemcial cycling
1. movement of chemicals and nutrients through biotic and abiotic compartments of Earth
2. nutrient recycling
Different types of biogeochemcial cycles
1. carbon
2. sulfur
3. hydrologic
4. phosphorous
5. iron
Most oxidized compound
CO2
Most reduced compound?
CH4
wetland
1. region that experiences seasonal changes in water level
2. feature many aspects of the global carbon cycle
Describe: carbon cycle
1. features reservoirs that store carbon in its various forms
2. connected to the hydrologic cycle (water cycle)8
carbon reservoirs
1. ocean and land largest open ones
2. atmosphere is minor reservoir
Where is most of the carbon in the ocean?
inorganic molecules
Where is most of the carbon on land?
in the crust
What contributes to CO2 growth?
1. human activity (fossil fuels and deforestation, indirectly through microbe decay of human remnants)
2. re-growth of vegetation counteracts CO2 accumulation
3. rise in global temperatures
4.
eutrophication
1. flowing water accumulates carbon based nutrients
2. microbes exploit influx by respiring at greater rates and depleting O2 levels
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
1. forms dead zones
2. respiring animals rapidly die off due to lack of dissolved O2
3. can be reduced by wastewater treatment
secondary treatment
1. microbial activity that decomposes organic material in the wastewater
2. compounds that resist degradation are anaerobically degraded at the end of the treatment.
3 major compounds in the sulfur cycle
1. H2S, S0, SO4 - 2
2. triangular process
hydrothermal vents
1. methanotrophy, methanogenesis, sulfate reduction, sulfide oxidation, iron oxidation, ntirogen cycle, tube worms
2. carbon fixed by lithotrophic mircoorganisms
3. interdependent relationships
Describe: N2
1. most available form of N in atmosphere
2. stable but inert
3. must be fixed in order for it to be used in living systems (fixed by microbes)
Describe: Rhizobium bacteria
1. fix nitrogen
2. form symbioses with legumes
3. attracted to roots by flavonoids
4. upon entry into the roots, they differentiate into bacteroid (where bacteroid fixes N2, and plant supplies nutrients)
Describe: ammonium NH4+
1. preferred by plants as nitrogen source over NO3-
2. one of the most important molecules of N2 cycle
Describe: NO3-, nitrate
1. oxidized form of Nitrogen
2. water soluabl
3. readily enter ground water (don't like negatively charged soil particles) and contaminate water
Describe: Haber process
1. produces ammonia (NH3) by reacting H2 and N2 using iron catalyst
4 important pathways in N2 cycle
1. Nitrogen fixation
2. Nitrification
3. Denitrification
4. Ammonification
Nitrogen fixation
1. N2 ==> NH4+
2. nitrogen gas converted into ammonium
nitrification
1. NH4+ ==> NO3-
2. ammonium is converted into nitrate
denitrification
1. NO3- ==> N2
2. nitrate is converted into nitrogen gas
ammonification
1. organic N ==> NH4+
2. organic nitrogen is converted into ammonium