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25 Cards in this Set

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What is the biomembrane permeable too?
Small polar compounds
Hydrophobic compounds
What is the biomembrane permeable to?
Large molecules
Charged Ionic compounds
Facilitated Diffursion?
Passive diffusion through specific transmembrane proteins(Channels or transporters)
Where are symorters and antiporters found?
In transporters and Pclase ATPases
Intreacellular signalling molecule
A non-nutrient ligand secreted by one cell to induce a response in another cell
Cytokine
A growth factor involved in hematopoiesis
Isoreceptors
Different receptors bound and activated by the same ligand often inducing distinct responses in different cells
Paracrine
For an intercellular signaling molecule to diffuse over a short distance, usually through interstitial spaces to induce a response
Endocrine
For an intercellular signaling molecule to diffuse through the blood
Hormone
An intercellular signaling molecule that controls metabolism or physiology
Growth factor
An intercellular signaling molecule that controls cell cycle progession, cellular differentiation, or morphogenesis during development
Receptor
A cellular factor that recongnizes and binds a specific ligand to induce a response
What are the three intercellular signaling molecule
Hormone,
Growth factor
and Cytokine

The difference is semantics
Two classes of intercellular signaling molecules
Hydrophyliic
Hydrophobic
What is involved with rapid responses?
Hydrophillic ligands.
Effectors
Components of signal transduction pathways. Signal is propagated from upstream to downstream effectors
Second messneger
(e.g. cAMP, DAG, IP3, Ca2+) Effectors that change teh concentration (increase or decrease) in response to ligand-receptor binding
Signal Transduction pathways
Regulatory pathways that transduce signals into cells.
Being with intracellylar signaling milecules which interact with transmembrane receptors to transduce the signal through the plasma membrane to intracellular effectros and second messengers
Fiur major signal transduction pathways
TGFbeta, Ras, cAMP, and phosphinositide signaling.
Three properties that allow for a vaired of responses from the four signal transduction pathways
1) different versions of each pathway, with homologous factors for each step.
2)The response to a pathway depends on cellular context
3) There is cross talk between pathways which means that some pathways regulate others
TGF BETA signaling
Family of proteinaceous intercelluar. That control numerous developmental events from embryo to adult.
Serine/Threonine Kinase recetors?
Bind to TGF-beta
What Ras do?
Blood glucose levels, metabolism, cell cycle progression, apotosis. INSULIN IS THE BIG ONE>
What does cholera disrupt?
The GAP domain of G-alpha in the cAMP cycle
What does the pertussis toxin disrupt?
Prevents the release of GDP from Goalpha. Thus preventing PLC activation. Also prevents GDP release from Gialpha, preventing adenylate cyclase inhibition. This leads to whooping cough

Does all this in the posphoinositide signaling