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151 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
How are riboses produced and what are they used for? (Intermediary Metabolism)
Riboses are a product of the pentose cycle and they are used for DNA and RNA synthesis
What causes lactose intolerance? (Carbohydrates)
Decreased lactase enzyme in gut brush border
What is the osmolarity of a 1M solution of glucose? (Osmosis)
1 Osmolar. Glucose does not dissociate in water.
Approximate volume of a unit of blood? (Volume)
0.5 L
Functional Residual Volume (Respiration)
the amount of air left in the lungs after a normal expiration = 2L
What happens to glucose once glycogen stores are at capacity? (Carbohydrates)
Glucose --Fatty Acids --Triglycerides --Transported to and stored as adipose tissue
What are deuterium and tritium? (Molarity)
Isotopes of hydrogen. Deuterium = 1 proton and 2 neutros, Tritium = 1 proton and 3 neutrons.
How is glucose stasis/toxicity tested? (Carbohydrates)
By measuring the glucose bound to hemoglobin. HbA1c=glycosylated Hb.
Lung function test (Respiration)
=forced expiratory vol in 1 second divided by forced vital capacity over 5 seconds = n. 80% in 1 second or 4-5L
Where in the body does gluconeogenisis occur? (Carbohydrates)
Liver and kidneys
What is the osmolarity of CaCl2? (Osmosis)
3Osmolar
How many L in a dl? (Volume)
.1L = 1 dl
Polio virus (Respiration)
Neurotropic virus which destroys the cell bodies of the phrenic nerve--> iron lung
Name 2 polysaccharides (Carbohydrates)
Sucrose and Lactose
What are atomic isotope? (Molarity)
Nuclides or isotopes are atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
What is average total body water for an adult male? (Volume)
40 L = 60% of body weight
2 respiratory diseases which would lower lung function below 80% (Respiration)
COPD & abestosis
How and where in the the body is glucose stored? (Carbohydrates)
Glucose is stored as glycogen in the liver and in muscle
Define osmosis. (Osmosis)
Osmosis is the movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from a higher to a lower concentration.
How many ml in a dl? (Volume)
100 ml = 1 dl
Residual Volume (Respiration)
the amount of air remaining in lung after FVC = 1L
How are carbohydrates made in the body?
Gluconeogenisis
What is the legal definition of intoxication in terms of ethanol concentration in blood stream? (Volume)
0.08%-0.1% ethanol = 0.08-0.1 g/dl
What is average cardiac output for an adult male at rest? (Volume)
5 L/min
Minute Volume (Respiration)
MV = rr x TV = 7.5L
What are functions of carbohydrates? (Carbohydrates)
1)source of energy, glycogenolysis
2)energy storage, glycogenisis and 3)component of glycoproteins
Euglycemia? (Molarity)
Glucose level is in the normal range: 4-5mM
%-as in 5% glucose-is another way of saying what? (Volume)
%=100 ml or 1dl, 5% glucose=5g glucose/100ml
Tidal Volume (Respiration)
the amount of air moving in and out of the lungs during each respiratiory cyle = 500 mL (350ml to gas exchange and 150mL of dead space)
What is lactose composed of? (Carbohydrates)
Glucose & Galactose
How many ìl are in 1L? (Volume)
1 million ìl = 1 L
In fight or flight, what process rapidly delivers glucose to the brain and muscles? (Carbohydrates)
Glycogenolysis
Total Lung Capacity (Respiration)
= VC + RV = c.6L
Which hormones control glycogenisis and glycogenolyisis? (Carbohydrates)
insulin, epenephrine and glucagon
What is the osmolarity of a 1M solution of glucose? (Osmosis)
1 Osmolar. Glucose does not dissociate in water.
What is sucrose composed of? (Carbohydrates)
1 molecule of glucose and 1 of fructose = disaccharide
Name 5 steps involved in the conversion of glucose to fatty acids? (Intermediary metabolism)
1)Glycolysis to pyruvate
2)Pyruvate to acetyl CoA
3)Acetyl CoA's to fatty acid chain elongation (in cytoplasm)
4)Fatty acids packaged as triglycerides in liver
5)Triglycerides stored in adipose
A change in the level of HCO3 is considered a ____________ (pH)
Metabolic change in pH
What causes glucose toxicity? (Carbohydrates)
Chronically elevated levels of glucose may cause glycosylation of proteins, changing protein function.
Why is surface tension so high? (Respiration)
It is the reverse radius of a sphere
Name 3 monosachharides (Carbohydrates)
Fructose, Galactose & Glucose
Vital Capacity (Respiration)
Maximum expiration after maximal inspiration = 5L
Where in the cell does the Kreb's cycle occur? (Intermediary Metabolism)
Mitochondria
What is the osmolarity of a 1M solution of NaCl? (Osmosis)
1M NaCL = 2Osmolar solution
Where is most of the CO2 which we exhale produced? (Intermediary Metabolism)
As given off in the TCA cycle
Chloride shift (Respiration)
Exchange of HCO3 for Cl- in CO2 removal reaction in the RBC
Which 2 cofactors in the Kreb's cycle are responsible for carrying H+ to the cytochromes? (Intermediary Metabolism)
FAD & NAD
What is radioactivity? (Molarity)
The spontaneous decomposition of the nucleus of an atom.
Oxidative phosphorylation (Intermediary Metabolism)
The movement of electrons across a gradient to form 30 ATP, requires cytochrome coenzymes and consumes O2. Oxidative=> refers to electron mvmt & Phosphorylation=> refers to ATP production.
In what percentages is the resting rate of 250ml/min CO2 removed? (Respiration)
60% HCO3, 30% carbamino compounds (HbCO2), 10% dissolved CO2 in plasma
Cytochromes (Intermediary Metabolism)
Iron contining proteins to which FAD and NAD carry H+. This series of enzymes functions as an electron transport system which creates an H+ gradient and heat.
Name the following conditions: 1)low blood sugar, 2)normal potassium levels & 3)high blood sodium (Molarity)
1)hypoglycemia
2)eukalemia
3)hypernatremia
What must occur in the mitochondria prior to the citric acid cycle?(Intermediary Metabolism)
The formation of acetyl CoA from acetate and CoA.
What RBC enzyme catalyzes dissolution of CO2 in plasma?
carbonic anhydrase: CO2+H20-->H2CO3-->HCO3 + H+ (H+ removed by Hb & HCO3 removed by chloride shift)
Chemiosmotic Theory (Intermediary Metabolism)
It takes energy to produce a gradient and as the gradient is dissipated energy is released and harnessed to form ATP.
What unit is used to express the number of RBCs and WBCs in the blood? (Volume)
number of cells/ìl
How is I 131 used in the clinical setting? (Molarity)
I 131 is used to destroy thyroid cells.
G6PDH deficiency (Intermediary Metabolism)
The primary x-linked enzyme deficiency leading to hemolytic anemia.
What is the MW of NaCl? (Molarity)
Na=23
Cl=36
MW NaCl = 59
What is hyperglycemia pathognomonic for? (Molarity)
Hyperglycemia is pathognomonic for diabetes.
When do type II alveolar cells first begin to mature? (Respiration)
26-28 weeks gestation
General equation for the pentose cycle. (Intermediary metabolism)
1)G6P+NAD(P)-->(G6PDH) --> 6-phosphogluconate+NADPH+H+
2)6-phosphogluconate+H20-->(lactonase)-->6-phosphogluconate +H+
3)6-phosphogluconate+NADP+-->(6PGDH)-->ribulose 5-phosphate+CO2+NADPH
Plasminogen activators (Respiration)
found in the lungs and function by converting plasminogen to plasmin which dissolves clots
What occurs in fetal lungs? (Respiration)
Amniotic fluid synthesis and glycogen storage
Accessory muscles of respiration (Respiration)
abdominal muscles for expiration & scalenes for inhalation
Name 3 clinical applications of EMR (EMR)
1)gamma knife for brain surgery 2)xrays and 3) phototherapy to lower bilirubin in neonates
What is the MW of glucose -C6H1206? (Molarity)
MW glucose = 180
C= 12x6 = 72
H= 1x12 = 12
O= 16x6 = 96
Why is surface tension so high? (Respiration)
It is the reverse radius of a sphere
Obligate Glycolyzers (Intermediary metabolism)
The brain and RBC's rely exclusively on glucose to meet their energy demands.
Ventilation (Respiration)
Ventilation=expiration:
- chest wals expand and lungs pulled with it
- IPP decreases & becomes more subatmospheric
- alveolar pressure decreases & becomes slightly subatmospheric
- air moves from area of greater to lower pressure (from the atmosphere to the subatmospheric lungs)
How does pH affect potassium levels? Give a clinical example.(pH)
Acidosis, an increase in body H+ causes K+ to move out of the intracellular space into the blood causing hypokalemia. Diabetic ketoacidosis can cause excessive loss of K+ in the urine. Lab results showing K+ levels may be misleading.
What can occur in babies who are born before 26-28 weeks? (Respiration)
Respiratory distress syndron (hyaline membrane disease) due to immature type II alveolar cells which produce surfactant
What is surfactant composed of? (Respiration)
a complex phospholipid composed primarily of lechithin & phosphatidylcholine
What is average plasma glucose? (Molarity)
4-5 mM
What is a photon? (EMR)
A particle of EMR
Muscles of inspiration (Respiration)
Diaphragm & external intercostals
Where is surfactant made? (Respiration)
it is secreted by type II alveolar cells
What do moles measure?
The number of particles in given substance. (1 mole of any substance contains as many entities as the number of atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon 12 = 6.02 x 10 to the 23rd)
What is electromagnetic radiation? (EMR)
waves of energy emitted as a consequence of the movement or rapid oscillation of electrons and photons
3 structures which defend the lungs from airborne pathogens (Respiration)
cilia, mucous and alveolar macrophages
2 functions of surfactant (Respiration)
10 lowers the surface tension of alveoli and 2)also in adults it prevents collapse of the alveoli/atelectasis
Innervation, receptor type and neurotransmitter of the diaphragm (Respiration)
innervated by the phrenic nerve, cholinergic-nicotinic receptor, acetylcholine neurotransmitter
If RBC's were placed in a 0.01 M solution of NaCl what would would occur and why? (Osmosis)
Hemolysis would occur, because 0.01M NaCl is hypotonic. Water would move into the RBC causing it to burst.
What are three types of radiation and what does each involve? (Molarity)
á radiation = helium ion
â radiation = an electron
ã radiation = photon of high energy electromagnetic radiation
How are all alterations of body pH described? (pH)
Metabolic & Respiratory
- Metabolic acidosis or ketosis
- Respiratory acidosis or ketosis
How is the molecular weight (MW) calculated? (Molarity)
MW is obtained by adding the atomic weights (protons + neutrons) of constiuent atoms.
What are the molarity and osmolarity of D5W? (Osmosis)
D5W = 5% = 5mg/dl = 50g/L
50g/L divided by 180MW =
0.28M = 0.28Osmol
What is a 1 Molar (1M) solution? (Molarity)
1 mole of a molecule in 1 liter solution = 1M (ex. a 1 L solution containing 1 mole of NaCl is a 1M solution.)


What is the plasma concentration of H+ and how is pH calculated? (pH)
Plasma H+ = 40nM = 4 x 10-8
pH= -log of H+ concentration
log [4x10-8] = -8 - log4
log of 4 =.6
-8-.6=7.4
What can accelerate the maturation of type II alveolar cells? (Respiration)
glucocorticoids
How much water can be processed by the kidneys and what can water intoxication lead to? (Osmosis)
The kidneys can only process c. 1L water/hour. Excessive water intake can lead to the swelling of cells, delirium, coma and death.
Define osmolarity. (Molarity)
The molarity of a solution multiplied by the number of particles produced by the solute molecules. Osmolarity represents the number of osmotically active particles the molecule is capable of dissociating into.
Define buffer (pH)
Any substance which maintains body pH despite addition of free H+
5 functions of the lungs (Respiration)
1)removal of CO2 & uptake of O2, 2)amnitoic fluid synthesis & glycogen storage in the fetus, 3)surfactant production, 4)plasminogen activation and 5)defense from airborne pathogens
What is an equivalent (eq)? (Equivalents)
???
What is the normal range of of plasma sodium? (Molarity)
130-140 mM
What is an increase in CO2 levels called and what can cause it? (pH)
Respiratory acidosis can be caused by a decrease in the rate of respiration or poor ventilation, by COPD and emphysema.
Which radioisotope is used to date artifacts? (Molarity)
C 14
Salt water is 3%. What are its molarity and osmolarity? (Osmosis)
3% = 3mg/dl = 30g/L &
30g/L divided by 59MW NaCl = 0.5M = 1Osmol which is hypertonic to plasma. If shipwrecked, never drink salt water which would cause crenation of RBC's.
What is the half life of surfactant? (Respiration)
14 hours
Alkalosis (pH)
pH>7.45
What is a mole? (Molarity)
1 mole is the MW of a compuond in grams. (ex. 1 mole of glucose = 180 grams of glucose and 1 mole of NaCl=59 grams of NaCl)
1Meq = ?M (Equivalents)
1Meq=1mM
What is Molarity? (Molarity)
Concentration expressed as the number of moles of a solute per 1L of solution
What is the most important buffer pair in the body? (pH)
HCO3/CO2
What is the first step in glycolysis? (Intermediary metabolism)
Phosphorylation
What is the concentraion of H+ in the stomach during digestion and what is the pH? (pH)
H+ c. 0.1M and pH of 0.1M HCl = 1
What enzyme catalyzes the reversible reaction from pyruvate to lactate? (Intermediary metabolism)
LDH (lactate dehydrogenase)
A change in the level of CO2 is considered a __________ (pH)
Respiratory change in pH
What must occur before glucose can be metabolized? (Intermediary metabolism)
Glucose must be transported into the cell by facilitated diffusion or active transport.
NS is what %? Calculate the molarity and osmolarity of NS. (Osmosis)
NS = 0.9% = 0.9mg/dl = 9g/L
9g/L divided by 59MW NaCl =
0.15M = 0.30smolar
=ISOTONIC
What is a decrease in CO2 levels called and what can cause it? (pH)
Hyperventilation can cause respiratory alkalosis.
Beriberi (Intermediary metabolism)
Deficiency in thiamin
What conditions can lead to hemolysis? (Osmosis)
Sickle cell anemia , enzyme defciencies and transfusion mismatches.
What does the phosphorylation of glucose produce as a first step in glycolysis? (Intermediary metabolism)
G6P (glucose 6 phosphate)
Acidosis (pH)
pH<7.35
Name the hormone and enzyme responsible for glycogenisis. (Intermediary metabolism)
Insulin and glycogen synthase
What molar solution and osmolarity of NaCl is isotonic with RBC's or body fluids? (Osmosis)
0.15M NaCl/0.3Osmolar NaCl isotonic
What 2 purposes does phosprylation serve? (Intermediary metabolism)
1) phosphorylation traps glucose in the cell 2) phosphoryltion is the first step in glycolysis or the breakdown of the 6 carbon glucose molecule
Normal pH of plasma? (pH)
7.35-7.45
Describe cofactors & their role in intermediary metabolism. (Intermediary metabolism)
Coenzymes or cofactors are usually obtained via the diet (as vitamins or as deritives of thiamin, niacin, folic acid) and function in intermediary metabolism as H+ and/or electron carriers.
What are the effects of mannitol? (Osmosis)
Mannitol is an osmotic diuretic used to treat cerebral edema by increasing urin flow from the renal tubules.
What are the end products of glycolysis? (Intermediary metabolism)
2 pyruvate, 2 NADH (nicotine adenine dinucleotide) and 2 ATP
What is an increase in HCO3 level called and what can cause it? (pH)
Vomiting can cause metabolic alkalosis.
What is the role of insulin in glucose metabolism? (Intermediary metabolism)
Insulin mediates the transport of glucose into the cell at the site of the insulin receptor, in conjuction with substrates and the enzyme phosphatidyinositol-3-kinase (PI3K).
What is a decrease in HCO3 levels called and what can cause it? (pH)
Metabolic acidosis. Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) can cause metabolic ketoacidosis.
What is the first step in glucose metabolism? (Intermediary metabolism)
Phosphorylation
What can a long hard run cause? (pH)
Metabolic/lactic acidosis.
Nightblindness (Intermediary metabolism)
Deficiency of vitamin A which makes rhodopsin.
Which enzymes are responsible for glucose phosphorylation where? (Intermediary metabolism)
Hexokinase - in virtually all cells & Glucokinase - in the liver and in pancreatic beta cells.
Henderson-Hasselbach equation for the HC03/CO2 buffer system(pH)
pH = pka + log base/acid
pka for HCO3/CO2 = 6.1
pH = 6.1 + log HCO3/CO2
pH = 6.1 + log 24/1.2
log 24/1.2= log 20 = 1.3
pH = 6.1 + 1.3
pH = 7.4
Impaired activation of which enzyme plays is associated with insulin resistance in diabetes and obesity? (Intermediary metabolism)
phospatidyinostiol-3-kinase
Gout is associated with the accumulation of ____ in which cell organelle? (cell structure and function)
accumulation of uric acid in the lysosome
Pernicious Anemia (Intermediary metabolism)
A defieincy in vitamin B-12
Proton motive force (Intermediary Metabolism)
Refers to how the movement of H+ is used to create ATP
Scurvy (Intermediary metabolism)
Caused by a deficieny in vitamin C
Alcohol metabolism generates alot of which cofactor? (Intermediary Metabolism)
NADH
What is the first step in glucose metabolism? (Intermediary metabolism)
Glycolysis
Bax (Intermediary Metabolism)
A cytosolic protein which induces apoptosis in the mitochondria
Name the hormones invloved in glycogenolysis. (Intermediary metabolism)
epenephrine and glucagon
Final step of TCA general reaction (Intermediary Metabolism)
C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + 32 ATP
Where is glycogen stored? (Intermediary metabolism)
In the liver and in muscle
4 oxidative phosphorylation inhibitors (Intermediary Metabolism)
1)cyanide 2)CO 3)insecticides 4)barbiturates
What are the 4 fates of glucose-6-phosphate? (Intermediary metabolism)
1) glycogen storage in liver or muscle, 2)glycolysis, 3)the pentose cycle or 4)conversion into fatty acids
What is end the product of anaerobic respiration? (Intermediary Metabolism)
Lactic acid
Apoptosis (Intermediary Metabolism)
Programmed cell death. Occurs as a result of the mvmt of Bax into the mitchodria where it reacts with translocater protein thereby increasing membrane permeability and destroying the proton gradient force required for the production of ATP => cell death.
Which is the tripeptide in RBC's intimately involved in the detoxification of of toxic oxygen metabolites? (Intermediary Metabolism)
Glutathione (GSH)
What two organs are primarily responsible for maintaining body pH? (pH)
kidneys & lungs
Storage form of fatty acids? (Lipids)
Triglycerides
3 fates of CO2 (Respiration)
1)CO2 dissolves in plasma & exerts partial pressure b/x 40-46 mmHg. 2)CO2+H2O-->H2CO3-->HCO3- + H+, (accelerated by carbonic anhydrase in RBCs once HCO3 is echanged in Cl shift and once H+ is buffered by Hb). 3)CO2 binds to Hb directly to form carbamino compound (CO2 knocks O2 off of Hb thereby increasing O2 delivery to body tissues)
3 CNS centers for repiration & their functions (Respiration)
1)Medullary--> rhythmicity center with inspiration & expiration areas that set background pace of breathing. 2)Apneustic (mid-lower pons)-->apneusis is cessation of breathing in inspiratory position, in quiet breathing this center deepens inhalation, in order for expiration to occur it is inhibited by the pneumotaxic. 3)Pneumotaxic (upper pons)--> inhibits the apneustic center & promotes passive or active exhalation.