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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the components of the lymphatic system
-spleem, lymph nodes, lymph and lymph vessels, left lymphatic duct (thoracic duct), tonsils, thymus, bone marrow, right lymphatic duct
What is the difference between intercellular fluid and lymph
Intercellular fluid in between cells. Lymph is located inside lymph vessels
Intercellular fluid and lymph is similar to plasma except
1.. they have less protein than blood plasma
2. have more variation in # of WBC
3. Have more variation in types and amounts of organiz molecules than blood plasma
Trace the route of lymph circulation
1. lymph capillaries
2. lymphatics
3. right or left lymphatic duct (thoracic duct)
4. subclavian veins
What are the clinically important groups of lymph nodes. What may enlargement indicate?
- Submandibular
- axillary
- cervical
- inguinal
**Enlargement may indicate a pathological condition**
How is lymph moved? What can obstruction cause?
Lymph is moved by milking action of skeletal muscles (valves) and respiratory movements. Obstruction/malfunction causes edema or swelling because of accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces.
What is nonspecific resistance to disease
A wide variety of mechanisms that act against a wide variety of potential pathogens
What is specific resistance to disease
Specific immune mechanisms (antibodies, T cells) that act against specific germs/toxins or microorgansims
Describe chemical factors as a nonspecific resistance mechanism
HCL in the stomach
Describe interferon as a nonspecific resistance mechanism
Interferes with viral replication
Describe complement as a nonspecific resistance mechanism
Plasma proteins that attract granulocytes (maily neutrophils) leading to inflammation
What is an antigen
Anything (usually a large protein of the surface of a invading germ) that stimulates the body to produce antibodies. The antigen should react with the antibody
What is an antibody
- a globular protein (general)
- a gamma globulin (more specific)
- an immunoglobulin (specific)

**One antibody is produced by the body in response to a specific antigen in order to help activate that antigen**
What are antibodies responsisble for?
Toxin neutralization and precipitation, viral neutralization, agglutination, bacterial opsonization
What to opsonins do?
Coat the body with bacteria which renders whem susceptible to phagocytosis
What is the antigen-antibody response
The process by which an antigen and an antibody react with each other, thereby inactivating the invading antigen
What 2 cells make up the immune system
T cells and B cells
What is cellular immunity
Is carried out by T cells; cellular immunity is responsible for immune surveillance of cancer cells and transplants
What is antibody mediated immunity
- also known as humoral immunity
- It is carried out by B cells which convert to plasma cells which produce antibodies
Where do T and B cells originate?
- maily from stem cells in bone marrow
- T cells mature in thymus
- B cells mature in bone marrow(spleen, tonsils, Peyers patch, adenoids, liver
- They both them go to the lymph nodees and tissue
What is humoral immunity
-refers to antibodies (not T cells)
- B cells convert to plasma cells
- plasma cells produce antibodies
What happens in a primary immune response
- 1st exposure to antigen
- 2 to 3 day delay
- antibody level low
What happens in a secondary immune response
- subsequent exposures
- very little delay
- antibody level high
What does immunization do?
Induces a safe primary response so later exposures induce a secondary response
What do T cells provide
an immunologic surveillance ..they watch for and destroy cancer cells. Cancer cells are recognized by proteins on their cell membrane
Describe monoclonal
Antibodies are make by one clone of identical labe grown B cells. This makes on pure antibody wich will attack only on antigen. Promising as a cancer treatment.
Describe allergies
- abnormal increased response to an antigen
Describe tissue rejection
Immune system attacks transplanted organs
Describe immunosuppresive therapy
Intentional suppression of immune system to avoid rejection of transplanted organ. Problem of how to avoid infection (cyclosporin)
Describe autoimmune disease
The immune system attacks own body and produces autoantibodies against various tissue.
What are some example of autoimmune disease
-systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
- diabetes 1
- MS
Describe AIDS
Immune system is directly attacked, making the victim susceptible to other bacteria and viruses
What is natural active immunity
An actual disease that stimulates body to produce antibodies
What is natural passive immunity
Mother's antibodies cross placenta and confer temporary protection to the baby
What is artificial active immunity
an injection of a dead or weakened germ stimulates your body to make antibodies
What is artificial passive immunity
An injection of a previously made antibody confers immediate but temporary protection to the recipient (someone else's immunity)
What is inflammation
The body's response to tissue injury to restore homeostasis, to concentrate body defenses at site of injury, to minimize injury and speed healing
What are the signs and symptoms of inflammation
pain, redness, edema and heat
What are the stages of inflammation?
See 11.18
What causes redness in an inflammation
What causes edema in an inflammation
mainly fluid exudate owing to increased capillary permeability
What causes heat in an inflammation
vasodilation due to increased local metabolism
What causes pain in an inflammation
direct to nerves, irritation to nerves owing to increased capillary permeability pressure from edema
What is pus
A collection of WBCs, bacteria and debris
What is an abscess
excess accumulation of pus in a confined area
What is ulcer
Surface would that heals slowly
What are parenchymal cells
(regeneration) general name...cells that form functional tissue
What are stromal cells
General name...cells that form structural framework
excess of nonfunctional retucular fibers
scar tissue (fibrotic tissue)
What is the reproductive potential of
epithelial cells
muscle and nerve
liver and spleen
-epithelial cells and continually reproduce
-muscle and nerve usually cannot reproduce
- liver and spleen and sometimes reproduce
What are adhesions
tissue stuck together from inflammation and fibrosis
What are scabs
Fibrinogen/fluid exudate that hardens and dries
WHat is granulation tissue
"proud flesh", red, rapidly growing connective tissue that heals a woulnd
How does vitamin C promote healing
Vitamin C affects the production and maintenance of intracellular substance which is required in the synthesis of collagen. It also strengthens and promotes new blood vessel formation
Why do younger people heal faster than older people and have a more active immune system
Younger people have a better untritional state, better blood supply and higher metabolic rate.
What are the stages of inflammation
1. release of histamine
2. histamine causes vasokilation
3. vasodilation causes increase blood flow thich eliminates waste and carries neutrophils (phagocytosis), fibronogen (traps bacteria and clots) and nutrients to area
4. Vessel permeability increases (sludging)
5. Fluid exudate (immediate) Fibrinogen---fiber..clotting
6. Cellular exudate (1 hour)
neutrophils and monocytes form pus
7. Resolution