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34 Cards in this Set

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Hematology is the study of
Blood and Blood Disorder
Blood Disorders include (4)
anemia,
bleeding/thrombophilia
malignancy
infection
__________ is the best way to understand and characterize hematologic disorders
Analysis of Lab Tests
The two most common indices of hematology labs are:
CBC and coagulation
CBC provides the following info (5):
WBC
Hbg
Hct
Plt
MCV
WBC is a reflection of
immune comptenence
Hgb is a reflection of
oxygen-carrying capacity
Hct is a reflection of
total red cell mass in the blood
Platelet cound is a reflection of
clotting capacity
MCV is a reflection of:
red cell mass
Normal lab values for Hgb:
14-18 g/dl (male)
12-16 g/dl (female)
Normal lab values for Hct:
42-52% (male)
37-47% (female)
Normal lab values for WBC:
4.5-11,000
Normal lab values for platelet:
150-400,000
Normal lab values for MCV:
76-96
One of the most common uses of the CBC is:
to assess a pt oxygen carrying capacity by studing red cell indicies
A decrease in red cell mass:
anemia
An increase in red cell mass:
polycythemia
__________ is defined as decreased red cell mass leading to decreased oxygen delivery
anemia
Clinical findings of anemia (4):
pallor

weakness

Fatigue upon easy exertion; sometimes with chest pain

Tachy and occasionally hypotension
Pt may tolerate very low ______ without symptoms
Hct
In general, pt with Hct of ____ are considered to have severe anemia and are ususally symptomatic
<20%
Anemia is classified into these three groups that are related to size of red cells:
Microcytic: MCV<75

Normocytic: MCV 76-96

Macrocytic: MCV>96
Pt with decreased Hgb/Hct and MCV<76 have _________ anemia
Microcytic
There are three types of Microcytic anemia:
Iron deficiency

Anemia related to chronic illness

Anemial due to disorders of hemoglobin synthesis
Tx of iron deficiency anemia is done in two steps:
1) supplement to increase iron

2) find the caues of the iron deficiency
It is crucial to rule out _______ and _________ as the cause of iron deficient anemia
tumor and chronic bleeding
Almost any _______ ________ can be the cause of Microcytic anemia.
chronic disease

(ie autoimmune disease, chronic malignancies, infections like TB)
When pt have anemia of chronic disease, the patho is not well understood. In these pts, lab studies of iron stores may normal. These anemias usually resolve once the _______ _______ is treated.
underlying disease
Microcytic anemia of hemoglobin synthesis are caused by ______ or _______ disorders of hemoglobin synthesis.
congenital or acquired
Congenital hemoglobin synthesis error is from:
alpha and beta thalassemia
Acquired hemoglobin synthesis error is caused by:
lead poisoning
In congenital diseases (Micro anemia-Hgb synthsis error), there are _______ ________ which cause abnormal and poorly functioning hemoglobin molecules to be synthesized
genetic mutations
In acquired (Micro anemia-Hgb synthesis error), heavy metals like_______ can displace ______ from the heme molecule and lead to the formaion of poorly functioning Hgb molecules.
lead, iron