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73 Cards in this Set

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Aristotle (384-322)
-through mechanical expression explain how bones work
-anything moved must be moved by something else
1st analysis of gait & geo analysis of muscular action
DaVinci (1452-1519)
- used cadavers to locate muscles and what they did
- studied forces, % into simple/compound, studied friction
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
studied forces about floating : buoyancy forces, surface tension and density
- biomech of human jump, anaysis of gait of horses
Giovanni Borelli (1608-1679)
integrate phys and physical science
- investigated human mov’t inc. gait analysis & muscle
First theory of how muscle could create mov’ts
Issac Newton (1642-1727)
-brought everyone’s thoughts together to produce laws
1.The Law of Inertia
2.The Law of Acceleration due to Acting Force - fundamental tool for kinematics of mov’t & it’s description
3.Law of Action and Reaction
4.The Law of Gravity
Etienne Jules Marey (1838-1904)
-quantified science
-ground reaction force (rxn)
-certain force moved needle certain distances
Edweard Muybridge (1830-1904)
-contribution to high speed kinematics
-flight phase to see if you completely leave the ground
-walk transforms into run
-fraud # - when it b/c more efficient to run vs. walk
-photographs, owned horses
Acceleration (m/s/s or m/s2)
Rate of change of velocity
Angular Motion
Rotation around axis where some parts move more than others ie, moving arm around to wave
Linear Motion
All parts move the same, all experience the same displacement
Base of Support (BOS)
Area btw. Object and its surroundings where reaction forces can be generated
Centre of Mass (COM)
A point, pts around which a body weight is equally balanced ie, uggs, standing on one foot
Displacement (m)
Vector has magnitude and direction the diff. in position,
ie...don’t move = no displacement
Electromyography
Measurement of electrical activity in muscles
Force (N)
Mechanical interaction btwn. Object & surroundings
Force Platform
Measures reaction forces on 3 planes, and moments about these axes,
Free Body Diagram (FBD)
Graphic analysis def. system & how interacts
Kinematics
Description of motion of body in terms of displacement, velocity, accel, w/o reference to forces causing motion
Kinetics
Description of motion of a body in term of forces that cause motion
Moment of Force (Nm)
Rotary effect of a force, Torque, ex. A door opening, moment from hinged door
Position
Location of an object relative to some reference
Scalar
Variable that is def’n by magnitude only quantity (speed), ie, 80km w/o direction
Segment
Predefined portion of an object
Vector
Quantity that conveys both magnitude and direction
Velocity (m/s)
Rate of change in position w. respect to time. Velocity is usually measured in m/s
concentric contraction
muscle torque is greater than the load= muscle shortens
eccentric contraction
load torque greater than the muscle= lengthened
isometric
muscle torque= load torque= no movement
isokinetic contraction
angular velocity of dsplaced body segment is constant
isotonic contraction
muscle contracts and does work versus a constant looad
viscosity
meuasure of sheer stress that applied to a fliud or like material to obtain a rate of displacement
elastic region
in Stress Strain Relationship, the area of elastic modulus where any stress to the bone still returns to original configuration
plastic region
in Stress Strain Relationship, the area of plastic modulus where any stress to the bone results in lengthening from original length
MOMENT
force x distance
EMGS
measure force of action potential
suface EMG
on skin over muscle
subcutaneous EMG
under skin over the muscle
intramuscular EMG
in the muscle between cells
force length relationship
force that muscle cna generate is dependent upon the length of muscle @ the time of contraction
accelerometer
measures acceleration
buoyancy force
an upward directed force that depends on the weight of the fluid that has been displaced
centripetal force
force directed toward the axis of rotation, changes linear into angular motion
compression force
pushing force
constant load
load that remains constant b/c the size of the load usually depends on the gravity which is constant
drag force
the component of the fluid resistance vector that acts parallel to the direction of fluid flow (swimming)
elastic collision
a collision in which the objects bounce off one another
elastic force
passive property of stretched material, that returns to original length.
external force
forces between us and the environment
gravity
force of attraction between an object and a planet, (9.81 m/s)
ground reaction force
reaction force provided by the horizonal support surface
impact load
brieft contact that has a magnitude greater than other forces acting on the system
impulse
the area under a force time curve (Ns) whihc corresponds to the force time intergral important relationship to momentum
law of acceleration
force= mass x acceleration
F= ma
law of action reaction
law stating that for every action there is an equal and opp reaction
law of gravitational
law stating that all bodies attract one another w. a force that is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them
fG- G(m1 m2)/ r2 (distance)
law of inertia
law stating that a force is required to stop, start or alter motion
magnitude
size or amplitude
mass
the amount of matter (kg)
moment of force
the rotary effect of a force, torque
muscle power
the rate at which a muscle can do work
negative work
work done by surroundign system. energy absorbed by the system from the surroundings during negative work
normal compoennt
acts a right angle to a surface
orthogonal
perpendicular, independt (shear force) still 90degrees
positive work,
work done by SYSTEM on Surroundings. energy flows form teh system to the surroundings
power
the rate of doing work, the rate of change in energy, the product of force and velocity can be produced or absorbed
shear force
a force that acts parallel to the contact surface
weight
the amount of gravitational attraction between an object and earth
contact force
invoolves the actions, pushes or pulls exerted by one object in direct contact with another
non contact
act at a distance and are exerted by an object that is not in contact with one another
bone on bone force
sume of the actively contracting muscle forces pulling the joint together and the joint reaction force
muscle force
generate tensile force
work in one direction
thus, movements of join must be accompanied by opposing pairs of muscles
inertial force
when one segment exerts a foce that causes mov't in that segment not due to muscle action
frictional force
force acting parallel to the interface of two surfaces that are in contact during the motion or impending motion of one surface as it moves over the other