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74 Cards in this Set

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In an open chain movement, the _____ moves on the _____, whereas in a close chain movement, the ____ moves on the _____.
(femur and tibia)
Open chain- tibia moves on femur
close chain- femur moves on tibia
Are fibrous joints generally moveable?
Most are synarthrodial (immovable) ... some are amphiarthrodial (slightly movable).

The amount of movement is dependent upon the length of CT fibers connecting bones
Are cartilaginous joints moveable?
Cartilaginous joints are slightly movable(amphiarthrodial), though some are immovable (synarthrodial)
What is the name for freely moveable joints?
Freely movable joints are called SYNOVIAL JOINTS.
______ joints are bones joined by dense fibrous tissue, with no joint cavity. The suture, _____ and _____ are examples of this type of joint.
Suture, gomphosis and syndesmosis are all examples of fibrous joints. The amt of movement is dependent on the length of connective tissue fibers connecting bones.
When the fibrous suture joints ossify later in life, it is called _____.
synostosis
Gomphosis joints are synarthrodial peg in socket fibrous joints. The articulation of the tooth into the ______ socket is held by a fibrous connection of the short _____ ligament.
Alveolar socket and tooth are held by the short periodontal ligament
Our tibia and fibula are examples of bones connected by a ligament, fibrous joints that are also classified as ___ and _______.
syndesmosis and amphiarthrodial
The cord or band of fibrous tissue is made of long collagen fibers. longer fibers= more movement
Cartilaginous joints don't have a joint cavity and are synarthrodial and ______, or slightly moveable.
amphiarthrodial- slightly moveable
synchondrosis and symphysis are two types
Two examples of synchondrosis and synarthrodial cartilaginous joint are the epiphyseal plate and costosternal joints, which are connected by ____ _______.
hyaline cartilage
Intervertebral joints and the pubic symphysis are examples of joints where the articular surface is covered with hyaline cartilage. The cartilage is fused to a shock absorbing pad of ______. Describe these symphysis joints in terms of movement (funtional classification).
FIBROCARTILAGE

synarthrodial and anphiarthrodial
______ joints are diarthrodial and describe bones separated by a fluid-filled joint cavity connected by ligaments of dense CT.
Synovial joints can also be amphiarthrodial, but most are freely moveable
Synovial joints have articular _____ on the ends of the bones, an articular capsule, joint cavity with synovial fluid which is made by ______, and reinforcing ligaments.
cartilage
Synovial fluid is made by the synovial membrane
Agresta descibed the _______ cartilage of the synovial joint as "smooth, like glass sliding on glass".
articular cartilage
Synovial fluid is found throughout the capsule and with the ______. It has a high amount of ______ and feeds the articular cartilage.
Within the cartilage. it contains hyaluronic acid
The synovial joints of the hip and knee also have ____ pads between the capsule and synovial membrane or bone. This reduces ____.
FAT pads reduce friction and adds stability and cushion
The _____ and ______ have a fibrocartilage disc, or ______ separating the articulating surface. What is its function?
KNEE and TMJ have MENISCUS

This improves the fit between the articulating bones, stabilizes the joint and reduces wear and tear.
Bursae are also found in some synovial joints. They reduce friction between __,_____,____ and bones. (think attachments)
muscle, tendon and ligament
The ______ has a tendon sheath, an elongated bursa wrapped around a __.
shoulder joint (synovial) wraps around the tendon
Name the factors that affect synovial joint stability.
The shape of articular surfaces, the number and position of ligaments, and muscle tone
The muscle tone is one important factor in synovial joint stability. it is especially important in which three areas of the body?
shoulder, knee and arch of foot
The six types of synovial joints are _____, hinge, _____, condyloid, _____ and _________.
gliding, ball and socket, hinge, condyloid, pivot, saddle
The facet joints of vertebrae, inter-carpal joints and inter-tarsal joints are all synovial ____ joints. These are classified as_______.
gliding- they have flat surfaces, allow only slipping or gliding and are non-axial joints. Called amphiarthrodial
Hinge joints are _______. Their motion around the axis is perpendicular to the long axis of the bone. They permit flexion and extension only. Examples include____,_____femur and tibia at the knee joint, and ____.
diarthrodial
ulna and humerus at elbow, finger and toe joints
The atlantoaxial joint and proximal radioulnar joint are examples of synovial _____ (trichoid) joints, which are diarthrodial.
pivot
Pivot joints are _____, the projecting bone rotates on its longitudinal axis.
uniaxial
Pivot joints describe motion around a single axis parallel to the long axis of a bone.
The radiocarpal joint is a ______(ellipsoid) diarthrodial synovial joint. Movement around two axes, or _____ permits all angular motions.
condyloid
biaxial
metacarpophalangeal joints are also condyloid
Saddle, or seller joints are biaxial, diarthrodial and can flex, extend, adduct and abduct and circumduct. There is only one joint like this in our bodies...very helpful for shiatsu and traveling. What is it?
The first carpometacarpal joint (thumb!)
The head of the humerus into the glenoid cavity is an example of which diarthrodial synovial joint type?
yes, so many things to remember...a ball and socket, or enarthrodial joint.
What synovial joints are triaxial and what are some examples?
Ball and socket joint- shoulder and head of femur into acetabelum (hip). These joints can move freely into flexion-extension, adduction-abduction, rotation, diagonal movements, and circumduction
There are 7 steps in the Naturopathic Therapeutic Order. Can you name them (in order)?
1. Establish the conditions for health
2. Stimulate the healing power of nature (VMN): the self healing process
3. Address weakened or damaged systems or organs
4. Correct structural integrity
5. Address pathology (natural substances, modalities or interventions)
6. Address pathology (pharmacological or synthetic substances)
7. Suppress or surgically remove pathology
Give some examples of "Establish the conditions for health"
Identify and remove disturbing factors
Institute a more healthful regimen
What are some ways to "Address weakened or damaged systems or organs"?
Strengthen the immune system
Normalize inflammatory function
Balance regulatory systems
Harmonize with your life force
Decrease toxicity
Optimize metaboic function
Enhance regeneration
What are some examples of "First Order Interventions"?
Manipulation, therapeutic exercise, massage or surgery for microtrauma, macrotrauma, repetitive stress, postural syndromes, congenital conditions
What is "Second Order Intervention"?

Give an example
Manipulation, therapeutic exercise, massage or surgery for structural problems that are the result of stress upon internal systems

Example: digestive disorders
What part of the autonomic nervous system is assoicated with T1-L2?
Sympathetic
What part of the autonomic nervous system is associated with Cranial III, VII, IX and X?
Parasympathetic
What part of the autonomic nervous system is associated with Sacral (S2, S3 and S4)?
Parasympathetic
TRUE or FALSE

Nervous tissue and skin are both derived from ectoderm.
TRUE, hence somato-visceral influences and viscero-somatic influences
Problems with what organ are commonly seen in conjunction with T6 and T7 problems?
Stomach

(vice versa is also true)
Define KINESIOLOGY
the study of motion or human movement
from Greek...
kinese = to move
ology = to study
Define BIOMECHANICS
Principles of physics applied to human motion
Name the branch of biomechanics that describes the motion of the body, without regard to the forces or torque that may produce the motion.
Kinematics
What are the two branches of kinematics?
1. Osteokinematics
2. Arthrokinematics
What is Osteokinematics?
gross, global motion of joints in the cardinal planes
What is Arthrokinematics?
fine bone on bone motion within joints

movement of the joint surface
Name the two types of kinematic motion.
1. Translation
2. Rotation
Define TRANSLATION.

Name the two types of translation.
Linear motion in which all parts of the body move in the same direction.

1. Rectilinear: may glide in a straight line
2. Curvilinear: may glide in a curved line
Define ROTATION

Give an example
Motion in which body parts move in a circular path around a pivot point (axis of motion)

Example: elbow rotates around its axis
When a person is running, what type of kinematic motion is occuring at the shoulder joint?
Rotation
When a person is running, what type of kinematic motion is occuring at the pelvis?
Translation
When a person is running, what type of kinematic motion is occuring at the knee joint?
Rotation
The movement of the body in either translation or rotation can be described as either Active or Passive movement. How is this clinically relevant?
We may determine the source of a patient's pain.

Pain during active movement = Muscluar/tendon
Pain during passive movement = joint/ligament
How is "fundamental position" different from "anatomical position"?
Fundamental position is essentially the same as the anatomical position except:

Arms are at the sides
Palms facing the body
This plane splits the body into right and left halves
Sagittal plane
This plane splits the body into front and back.
Frontal (coronal) plane
This plane splits the body into upper and lower.
Transverse (axial) plane
What is an axis of motion?
Imaginary line perpendicular to the plane of motion and passing through the center of rotation.
"X" axis...

1. Located in what plane?
2. What movement?
3. Plane of motion?
1. Frontal (coronal)
2. Flexion and extension
3. Sagittal plane
"Y" axis...

1. Located in what plane?
2. What movement?
3. Plane of motion?
1. Longitudinal (vertical)
2. Rotation
3. Transverse plane
"Z" axis...

1. Located in what plane?
2. What movement?
3. Plane of motion?
1. Sagittal plane
2. Abduction/adduction
3. Frontal (coronal) plane
Define OSTEOKINEMATICS
motion of bones relative to the three cardinal planes of the body.
What is linear motion (gliding)?

What are some examples of joints that experience this type of movement?
Motion of one flat or nearly flat bone surface that glides or slips over another without appreciable angulation or rotation.

Examples: metacarpal joint, metatarsal joint, vertebral facets joints
What is angular motion (rotation)?

What are some examples?
Motion causing either an increase or decrease in the angle between two bones.

Examples: flexion, extension, hyperextension, hypertension, abduction, adduction, circumduction
Flexion _____ angle between elements.
Extension ______ angle between elements.
Hyperextension is extension past ______.
Reduces
Increases
Anatomical position

Slide 31
Abduction moves (away/toward) vertical axis, Adduction moves (away/toward) vertical axis.

Abduction & Adduction are angular motions in what plane?
Away, Toward

Frontal

Slide 32
_____ is a circular motion without rotation. This motion combines flexion, abduction, ____ & _____ performed in succession.
Circumduction

Extension, Adduction

Slide 33
_____ is a rotation of forearm so palm faces forward (upward); _____ is a rotation of the forearm so palm faces to the rear (downward).
Supination, Pronation

Slide 34
When the foot is inverted, is the weight on its outer or inner edge? How about in eversion?
Inversion- weight on outer edge of foot
Eversion- weight on inner edge of foot

Slide 35
Plantar flexion is _____ at ankle from neutral 90 degrees. Dorsiflexion is ____ at ankle from neutral 90 degrees.
Extension, Flexion

Slide 36
What two motions refer to the thrusting the jaw, shoulders or pelvis forward or backward, respectively?
Protraction- pushing forward
Retraction- pulling backward

Slide 38
In thumb opposition, opposition is thumb movement towards ____ or ____. ______ is thumb movement back to to the anatomical position.
Fingers or Palm

Reposition.

Slide 40
Name the 2 types of flexion at the wrist.
Radial deviation
Ulnar deviation

Slide 41
What are 4 possible movements of the trunk?
Trunk flexion
Trunk extension
Lateral flexion
Rotation

Slide 42