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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the definition of a disease?
is any change, other than an injury that disrupts the normal function of the body
what are agents that produce diseases? what are they known as?
agents that produce disease are also known as pathogens: bacteria, viruses, fungi
what did people think diseases were caused by thousands of years ago?
curses, evil spirits, night vapors
how can infectious disease be transmitted?
from one person to another, by contanimated water or food. some can be spread by infected animals
what are some simple behaviors that help control transmission of disease?
covering your mouth w/ a tissue when you cough, washing your hands thoroughly and often
animals that carry pathogens from person to person are called ?
what are antibiotics? do they have an effect on viruses?
antibiotics: compounds that kill bacteria w/out harming the cells of the human or animal hosts.
-have no effect on viruses
what is the function of the immune system? what triggers the immune response?
fight infection through the production of cells that inactivate foreign substances or cells
- antigen triggers immune respones
what are two general categories of defense mechanisms agaisnt infections? what can they be compared to?
2 general categoreis are nonspecific defenses and specific defenses.
- nonspecific defenses: are like the fortress walls of our system
-specific defenses: like security guards
what makes up our first line of defense? are they specific or non?
skin, mucus, sweat, tears make up 1st line of defense and are nonspecific defenses
what do lysozyme do?
is an enzyme that breaks down the cell walls of many bacteria
what happens in inflammatory response?
a second line of defense is activated
how does a fever hep you fight an infection?
brings a higher body temperature, which increase your heart rate, helping white blood cells get to the site of the infection faster
what does an interferon do?
inhibit the synthesis of viral proteins in infected cells and help block viral replication
what do B lymphocytes and tlymphocytes do?
B lymphocytes: provide immunity agaisnt antigens and pthogens in the body fluids
T lymphocytes: provide a defense agaisnt abnormal cells and pathogens inside living cells
what do plasma cells make and what does this substance do?
- release antibodies
- antibodies: are proteins, recognize and bind to antigens. they are then carried into bloodstream, so they can attack the pathogen that is cuasing infection
what do memory B cells do?
divide rapidly, forming new plasma cells, which produce he specific antibodies needed to destroy the pathogen
how many different types of antibodies cn a healthy adult produce?
100 different types of anitbodies
what happens during cell mediated immunity?
the body's primary defense agaisnt its own cells when they have become cancerous or infecte by viruses
what does each type of t cell do?
killer T cells: track down and destroy bacteria, fungi, protozoan or foregin tissue that contains the antigen
helper T cells: produce memory T cells
memory T cells: cause a secondary response if the same antigen enters the body again
suppressor T cells: release substances that shut down the kill T cells
what is a vaccination?
an injection of a weakened or mild form of a pathogen to produce immunity
what is active immunity?
appears after exposure to an antigen as a result of the immune responses
what is passive immunity?
when antibodies produced by other animals agaisnt a pathogen are injected into the bloodstream
what are allergies?
the most common overreactions of the immune system to antigens
what do histamines do?
increase flow of blood and fluids in the surrounding area. also increase mucus production in the respiratory sytem
what happens to a person's air passageway if they are having an asthma attack?
they become narrower
what is an autoimmune disease?what are some disease?
when the immune system makes a mistake and attacks the body's own cells
- type I diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, myasthenia gravis and multiple sclerosis
what type of cell does the AIDS birus destroy?
helper T cells
what did Jenner discover two months after he injected a farm boy w/ cowpox?
the cowpox infection had made the farmboy immune to smallpox