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21 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
heredity
transmission of genetic traits from parent to offspring
genetics
study of heredity
monohybrid cross
cross involving one pair of contrasting traits
true-breeding
displaying only one frm of a particular trait in an offspring
P generation
the first two individuals that mate in a genetic cross
F1 generation
the first offspring froma cross of two varieties in the parental generation
F2 generation
the offspring from crosses among individuals of the F1 generation
allele
an alternative form of a gene
dominant
genetic trat that is expressed when its allele is homozygous or heterozygous
recessive
genetic trait that is not expressed when the contrasting form of the trait is present
homozygous
refers to an individual with two identical alleles for a trait
heterozygous
refers to anidvidual with two different allels for a trait
genotype
the genetic makeup of an organism as indicated by its set of alleles
phenotype
observable characteristics of an organism
law of segregation
first law of heredity stating that pais of alleles for a trait seperate when gametes are formed
law of indenpendent assortmen
second law of heredity stating that pairs of genes seperate independently of one another in meiosis
punnett square
diagram used by bioloists to predict the probable outcome of a genetic cross
test cross
a genetic cross of an indidivual whose phenotype is dominant but whose genotype is unknown, with a homozygous recessive individual
probablity
the likelyhood that a specific event will occur
pedigree
family history that shows how a trait is inherited over several generations
sex-linked trait
a trait that is determined by a gene found on the X chromosome