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36 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The passing of characteristics from parents to offspring.
Heredity
The branch of biology that studies heredity.
Genetics
Characteristics that are inherited.
Traits
Sex Cells
Gametes
Male gametes in plants are located here.
Pollen grain
Female gametes are located here.
Ovule
The uniting of male and female gametes.
Fertilization
Male gametes in animals.
Sperm cell
Female gametes in animals.
Egg cell
The transfer of male pollen grains to the female organ of the flower.
Pollination
Different Gene forms.
alleles
The way an organism looks. EX:Tall
Phenotype
The gene combination. EX: TT, Tt, tt.
Genotype
The two different terms that mean same gene combinations.
Homozygous
&
true-breeding
The two different terms that mean different gene combinations.
Heterozygous
&
Hybrid
Trait that is seen when a dominant gene is paried with a recessive gene.
Dominant
Trait that is not seen when a dominant gene is paired with a recessive gene.
Recessive
trait that can be seen only when two recessive genes are paired together.
Recessive
In the statement: Two alleles or gene forms, one from the male and one from the female, are needed for traits to be expressed. What do we mean by EXPRESSED?
Visible;Seen
The letter notation to represent the original parent in a cross.
P1

(subscript 1)
The letter notations to represent the first generation offspring (son or daughter) and the second generation offspring (son or daughter).
F1 (First Generation)
&
F2 (Second Generation)
(subscript 1 and 2)
A two factor cross which involves two traits.
Dihybrid
Law that states that the two alleles for each trait must separate when sex cells are formed.
Law of segregation
Law that states that different traits are inherited independently of each other.
Law of Independent Assortment
Type of math used to predict the likelihood of occurances.
Probability
Inheritance patter in which both alleles contribute to the phenotype of the offspring, which produces an offspring phenotype that is somewhere inbetween the two homologous parents phenotypes.
Incomplete Dominance

EX:
Red Rose x White Rose =Pink Rose
Inheritance patter in which both alleles for the trait are equally dominant and are both expressed in the offspring.
Codominance

EX:Color of Chicken Feather.
Inheritance pattern where the individual only inherits two alleles but there are 3 or more possible alleles in the whole population.
Multiple alleles.

EX:Human Blood Type
&
Color of Rabbit Fur
Inheritance pattern where phenotypes are the result of the interaction of several genes often on different chromosomes.
Polygenic Traits
Pair of chromosomes--one from the father and one from the mother.
Homologous
Cell that has 2 complete sets of chromosomes--one from each parent that have two complete sets of genes. EX:Any body cell (not sex cells)
Diploid
Cell that has one set of chromosomes (one set of genes) which is half of amount that a normal body cell for that type of individual.
Haploid
Tightly coiled microscopic structures made mostly of DNA that appear banded because they consist of sections of DNA (Genes) that code for the production of proteins and therefore determine a trait. Each ot these consists of millions of bases.
Chromosomes
A process of cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes in a cell by going through two cell divisions to take one diploid cell and produce four haploid cells.
Meiosis
The exchange of chromosome parts (genes) between two homologous chromosomes as the touch eacother when the sister chromatids form a tetrad during prophase I.
Crossing-Over
A listing of the known genes on a chromosome that are named after the problem that the abnormal alleles cause.
Gene Map