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87 Cards in this Set

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Active Immunity
When your body makes its own antibodies-i.e. getting a chicken pox shot forces your body to make its own antibodies to kill it.
Agglutination
Sticking together. Cells that have antigens in them agglutinate in the presence of antibodies
Allergy
When your body overreacts to a foreign cell. Sometimes, the reaction's side effects can be more destructive than the foreign cell itself. For example: a person who is allergic to peanuts breathes peanut proteins. The body then overreacts to the presence of the peanut protein and has a reaction to the foreign cell even though the side effects are worst than the peanut protein in the body.
Alveolus
one alveoli
Alveoli
The alveoli are a human's respiratory membrane. They are hidden inside the lungs so that they do not get hurt, since they are very thin and full of blood vessels, so that the oxygen that diffuses in adn the carbon dioxide that diffuses out can do so easily. All mammals and birds have alveoli, some reptiles do and very few amphibians do.
Anemia
Literally, it means lack of blood. But in reality anemia is a lack of red blood cells. it can cause your body cells to suffocate if it gets too serious. Usually caused y lack of hemoglobin in the body, which is caused by lack of iron in the body. Anemia can be cured by eating more iron to create more hemoglobin, to carry more oxygen to cells.
Angina
Pain in the chest. Caused by restriction in blood flow through the coronary arteries. This allows there to be less oxygen flowing to the muscles around the ventricles, and the heart tires easier. Can lead to a heart attack.
Antibody
Created by B-cells when they have displayed an antigen. Go around searching for specific types of antigens to hook on to. Also on T-cells. They hook on to bacteria, and kill it.
Antigen
Antigen: An antigen is a piece of a foreign cell. Displayed on B-cells to allow antibodies to search for matching ones in foreign cells.
Aorta
The artery that takes the blood from the left ventricle to the capillaries in the body. The aorta is a long tube that goes down your back. It later divides into two arteries, so it is no longer an aorta, just an artery.
Arteriole
When an artery divides into littler pieces, they are considered arterioles. (How small is an arteriole?)
Artery
Any blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart. Has a thicker lining than veins, which take blood to the heart, because the blood pressure going from the heart is much harder than the blood pressure going to the heart. Without the thick walls, the arteries would pop.
Asthma
Can be caused by allergies. A reaction where bronchi constrict and create more mucus. This causes you to have trouble carrying the oxygen down to the alveoli.
Atherosclerosis
hardening of arteries. Where there are deposits in arteries so that it is hard for blood to get through.
Atria
Plural of atrium
Atrioventricular node
Cluster of cells between the Right atrium and the right ventricle that controls the beating of ventricles.
Atrium
Same as auricle. There are two of them, the right atrium and the left atrium. Blood pumps into the right atrium from the capillaries in the body. There is no oxygen in it, since it was just given to the body cells. It goes into the right atrium, and it pumps the blood into the right ventricle, so that when the right ventricle contracts, it sends the blood to the lungs. The left atrium does the same thing as the right atrium, except that the blood that it receives is from the lungs, so it is oxygenated, and it pumps it into the left ventricle, which then pumps the blood into the capillaries in the body.
Auricle
same as the atrium
Autoimmune disease
A disease where your body is literally immune to itself. It starts attacking its own cells. Attacking cells makes your body immune to them, so your body is trying to become immune to itself.
AV node
Another word for atrioventricular node.
Bicarbonate ions
The form in which CO2 travels through blood. If it traveled as CO2, your blood would be fizzy.
Bronchi
Air tubes that lead from trachea to the lungs.
Bronchiole
The little bronchi that are nearest to the alveoli
Bronchus
Singular of bronchi
Capillary
The definition of a capillary is any blood vessel that is so small that only one cell at a time can pass through it. There are capillaries by the lungs, and capillaries throughout the body cells.
Carbonic acid
What you get when you mix H2O and CO2. You would get it if you put the metabolic waste of CO2 in your blood stream.
Cardiovascular system
The system that involves your heart and your blood vessels.
Closed circulatory system
Closed circulatory system: Any circulatory system with blood flowing through blood vessels.
Clot
When the liquid blood turns solid. Caused by thrombocytes (platelets) (What’s the exact definition for this?)
Coagulation
Clotting
Complement protein
The part of non-specific responses that cause proteins to hook on to bacteria. They can either form a hole in the bacteria which kills it, or they can get sensed by macrophages and digested.
Coronary Artery
The artery that carries blood to the muscles around the ventricle.
Diastole
The measurement of blood pressure when the ventricles relax
Diffusion
When molecules go from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Oxygen diffuses into the blood vessels, and carbon dioxide diffuses out of the blood vessels at the lungs. And the opposite at the body cells
Edema
swelling due to accumulation of lymph in a tissue.
Electrocardiogram
Way of seeing the heart beating
erythrocyte
Another word for a red blood cell. Carries oxygen to your body cells.
fibrillation
???
Fibrin
The long stringy protein that when present in blood catch blood cells in its web. This causes a clot. Fibrin comes from fibrinogen which is always present in your blood.
Fibrinogen
The protein that is always present in your blood. When thrombin is present in your blood, it turns fibrinogen into fibrin and causes blood clots.
Gills
Package of respiratory membranes that are basically thin tissues. They have lots of blood vessels in them. (how do they work?)
Heart
The pump that sends the blood throughout the body. Some are two-chambered, some are three-chambered, some are four-chambered, some are dorsal and tubular
Heart Attack
When part of the heart stops beating. Usually it needs oxygen. Sometimes it can result in too much plaque in the arteries, and not enough blood getting to the heart.
Hemoglobin
Found inside the red blood cells. They are more stable with an oxygen attached to them then without the oxygen attached. This makes them ideal for transporting oxygen to the body cells.
Histamine
A hormone/protein that is released when a cell is damaged. It causes an increase of blood flow to that area and releases chemicals that eventually break apart platelets to allow blood to clot. Whenever a cell is damaged histamine is released, even when you scratch your arm. However, not enough is produced to form blood clots, but enough is produced to allow the capillaries to swell up and more blood to flow to that area.
Homeostasis
The state at which everything is working correctly. When the body temperature is normal, no pathogens, etc.
Hypertension
High blood pressure
Immunization
When your body has become immune to something, it has created a cure for that something. Vaccination is one type of immunization.
Inflammation
When the blood vessels expand, allowing more blood to go to the area.
Leukocyte: White blood cells. See above.
Leukocyte
White blood cells.
Lungs
Where the alveoli are. They expand to allow oxygen to flow into the alveoli, and then carbon dioxide flows out of them when they contract
Lymph
Tissue fluid once it reaches the lymphatic vessels is called lymph. It is a part of the blood that is mostly plasma. However, there are not clotting proteins in it, and there are no red blood cells. (Everything else, though?)
Lymph node
A blob in the lymphatic vessel that is layered in tissue. White blood cells are in the lymph node, and when a foreign cell enters the lymph node, the WBC attacks the foreign cell.
Lymphatic vessel
The tissue fluid goes through the cells in the body depositing nutrients and oxygen into the cells that aren’t near by a capillary. The lymphatic vessels are the tubes that take the used tissue fluid (now called lymph) back to the heart to be pumped again.
Lymphocyte
The name of T- and B-cells. A type of leukocyte.
Myocardial infraction
Heart attack
Open circulatory system
A system where blood just oozes throughout the body. There are no blood vessels, blood pours around like water in a bucket full of sand.
Pacemaker
What controls the tempo of the heart beat.
Passive immunity
When your body does not make its own antibodies. If you get blood from someone else injected in you with the antibodies that kill a foreign cell. You are getting immune to a foreign cell without your body doing any work.
Plaque
Deposits in arteries. Usually fat deposits. Causes difficulty in getting blood through that artery.
Plasma
The liquid of the blood. Usually about 50-60% of the blood. Of that 50-60% 92% is water, 7% is protein, less than 1% is nutrients, and the rest is metabolic waste.
Platelet
A sac full of proteins that once released will form blood clots.
Prothrombin
The chemical that is always present in your blood stream, that when a chemical is present in your blood forms thrombin. It is part of the long string of chemical reactions that occurs in order to form a blood clot.
Pulmonary artery
the artery that leads from the right ventricle to the capillaries in the lungs. There is no oxygen in it. See diagram.
Pulmonary circulation
The blood flow to the lungs. The process of picking up oxygen and dropping off CO2.
Pulmonary vein
The vein that takes the oxygenated blood from the capillaries in the lungs to the left atrium. See diagram
PPulse
Tempo of the heart beat
red blood cell
Another name for erythrocyte. The cell that contains hemoglobin. The hemoglobin likes being attached to oxygen, making the red blood cells perfect oxygen transporters.
Red corpuscle
Red blood cell
Rejection
When your body does not accept an transplant of some sort. If blood is injected into your body and it does not match up to the type of blood that you have, it gets rejected.
SA node
Cluster of cells between L.A and L.V. that controls the beating of the atriums.
Sinoatrial node
SA node
Stroke
Some part of the brain stops working
Systemic circulation
???
Systole
The measurement of the blood pressure at the time of the heart ventricles’ contractions. (Is it systole/diastole?)
Thrombin
Originally prothrombin. The chemical before prothrombin enters the blood stream and then prothrombin becomes thrombin. Thrombin is the chemical that changes fibrinogen into fibrin, which causes blood clots.
Thrombocyte
platelet
trachea
The tubes that connect from the spiracles to the cells. They allow oxygen into the body of the grasshopper so that the slow-moving blood doesn’t need to transport it.
trachae
plural of trachea
Vaccination
When you put either a dead or weak foreign cell inside of a body. The body’s immune system uses that dead or weak cell to become immune to the fully alive cell.
Valve
A one-way flapper valve. They allow blood to pass through in one direction, but not in the other direction. Used to keep blood from flowing backwards (Is that all they do?)
Vein
A blood vessel that carries blood to the heart. Has thinner walls, and a bigger opening. The thicker walls are not needed because the blood pressure to the heart is not as high as the blood pressure away from the heart (at what point does an artery become a vein?)
Vena Cava
The biggest vein in a human. Leads from the capillaries in the body to the right atrium. Carries deoxygenated blood. See diagram
Ventricle
Muscle-bound chamber of the heart.The atrium pumps blood into the ventricle, and when the ventricle contracts, the blood surges throughout the body. See diagram
venule
a little vein
White blood cell
leukocyte
White corpuscle
white blood cell