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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
totality of an organism's chemical reactions
Catabolic Pathways
releases energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds
Anabolic Pathways
consume energy to build complicated molecule from simpler ones
study of how organisms manage their energy resources
capacity to do work
Kinetic Energy
possessed by anything that moves
Potential Energy
energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure
Chemical Energy
potential stored in molecules as a result of the arrangement of atoms in those molecules
study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter
1st law of thermodynamics
energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed
2nd law of thermodynamics
every energy transfer or transformation increase the entropy of the universe
measure of disorder
free energy
portion of a system's energy that can perform work when temperature is uniform throughout the system
Exergonic Reaction
"energy outward" net release of free energy; spontaneous
Endergonic Reaction
"energy inward" absorbs free energy from surroundings; nonspontaneous
Metabolic Disequilibrium
open system due to materials flowing in and out the product of 1 reaction becomes a reactant in the next step
Energy Coupling
use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic one
closely related to one type of nucleotide found in nucleic acids
recipient of the phosphate group when ATP releases energy
chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
catalytic protein
Free energy of Activation (Activation Energy)
initial investment of energy for starting a reaction
the reactant an enzyme acts on
active site
restricted region of the enzyme molecule actually binds to substrate
INduced Fit
as substrate enters active site, cause enzyme to change its shape slightly so active site fits more snugly
nonprotein helpers for catalytic activity, are bound tightly to active site as premanent residents OR bind loosely and reversibly along with substrate
cofactor is an organic molecule
Competitive Inhibitor
reduce productivity of enzymes by blocking substrates from entering active sites
Noncompetitive Inhibitor
slows down enzymatic reactions by binding to another part of the enzyme
Allosteric Site
specific receptor site of some part of the enzyme molecule remote from the active site
Feedback Inhibition
switching off of a metabolic pathway by its end products, which acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within pathway
mechanism that amplifies response of enzymes to substrates: 1 substrate molecule primes an enzyme to accept additional substrate molecules more readily