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19 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
biological species concept
definition of a species as a population or group of populations whose members can breed with one another in nature and produce fertile offspring
macroevolution
major biological changes evident in the fossil record
speciation
formation of new species
reproductive isolation
condition in which a reproductive barrier keeps two species from interbreeding
geographic isolation
seperation of populations as a result of geographic change or migration to geographically isolated places
adaptive radiation
evolution from a common ancestor of many species adapted to diverse enviroments
punctuated equilibrium
evolutionary model suggesting species often diverge in spurts of relatively rapid change, followed by long periods of little change
geologice time scale
organizes Earth's history into four distinct ages known as the Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic eras
Radiometric dating
based on the measurement of certain radioactive isotopes in objects
half-life
the number of years it takes for 50 percent of the original sample to decay
continental drift
motion of continents about Earth's surface on plates of crust floating on the hot mantle
mass extinctions
episode of great species loss
taxonomy
identification, naming, adn classification of species
binomial
two-part Latin name of a species
phylogenetic tree
branching diagram, suggesting evolutionary relationships, that classifies species into groups within groups
convergent evolution
a process in which unrelatied species from similar enviromnets have adaaptations taht see very similar
analogous structures
similarities among unrelated species that result from convergent evolution
derived charcters
unique features that unite the organisms as a clade called derived characters
cladogram
a phylogenetic diagram that specifies that derived characters of clades