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20 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Genome
a complete set of an organism’s genetic material
histones
DNA wraps around small proteins
The Human Genome Project
complete map of the human genome, allows insight into human embryonic development and evolutionary relationships, Identifying genes will aid in diagnosing treating and possibly preventing many common aliments=> (allergies, diabetes, and cancer.)
Trisomy 21
when there are three number 21 chromosomes=> it results form an error during either stage of meiosis, most commonly during meiosis I=> affects about one out of every 700 children born in the U.S.
Down syndrome
named after John Landdon who in 1866 described the syndrome symptoms (facial features and below- average height)=> also (heart defects, a varying degree of metal disability=> life time is shorter than avg.)
nondisjunction
Errors in chromosomes are usually caused by a pair of homologous chromosomes failing to separate during meiosis, can occur in anaphase of meiosis I or II, resulting in gametes with abnormal #’s of chromosomes
Duplication
occurs when a part of a chromosome is repeated=> not always fatal but often result in developmental abnormalities
Deletion
occurs when a fragment of a chromosome is lost=> losing parts or all of genes that code for certain proteins which have specific functions=> very serious effects on body.
Inversion
involves reversing a fragment of the original chromosome=> less likely to produce harmful effects
Translocation
occurs when a fragment of a chromosome attaches to a non-homologous chromosome=> result in 2 different chromosomes exchanging parts
Jumping Genes
“Jumping genes” are now known as transposons, Discovered these “jumping genes” could landing the middle of other genes and distrust them
Pedigree
a family tree that records and traces the occurrence
Carrier
an individual who has one copy of the allele for a recessive disorder and doesn’t exhibit symptoms of the disorder
Genetic counselor
a trained person who collect and analyzes data about inheritance patterns and explains the results and their significance.
Growth factors
one class of genes that produce proteins that initial cell division
Tumor-suppressor genes
other class of genes that produce proteins that stop cell division in particular situations
oncogene
a cancer causing gene
Huntington’s disease
causes a degeneration of the nervous system that usually doesn’t begin until middle age=> causes loss by mental ability and muscle control=> eventually death
Disorders
inherited as a dominant or recessive trait controlled by a single gene=> most genetic disorders are recessive.
Chromosomes
a single DNA molecule