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57 Cards in this Set

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DNA
-Deoxyribonucleic Acid
-large organic molecule
that determines the form
and function of cells
-other organics- carbs
lipids proteins
DNA STRUCTURE
nucleotide
NUCLEOTIDE
-Sugar (deoxyribose; 5c)
-Phosphate (PO3)
-Nucleotide Base
NUCLEOTIDE
BASES 1
purines
single ring
-Adenine(A)
-Guanine(G)
NUCLEOTIDE
BASES 2
pyrimidines
double ring
-Thymine(T)
-Cytosine(C)
NUCLEOTIDE
BASES FACTS
-bases from weak
hydrogen bonds
-adenine and thymine=
2 bonds
-Guanine and cytosine=
3 bonds
-Bonding causes the
"double helix" shape
REPLICATION
(s-phase)
-New DNA strands are
made or "replicated" by
enzymes in a series of steps.
REPLICATION
ACRONYM
GREG HELPED
POLLY LOOK PIMP
-DNA gyrase
-DNA helicase
-DNA polymerase
-DNA ligase
-Proof-reader enzyme
REPLICATION 1
DNA gyrase
moves through the
double helix and uncoils it.
REPLICATION 2
DNA helicase
cleaves weak hydrogen
bonds, dividing the
structure
into two opposing parts.
REPLICATION 3
DNA polymerase
-puts in nucleotide
bases and gathers free
floating
nucleotides and puts them
into the right spot.
*can only work opposite
to the orientation of each
strand.
*replication fork*
leading strand synthesis
lagging strand synthesis
REPLICATION 4
DNA ligase
-uses hydrogen bonds
to attach new nucleotides
(uses enzymes to synthesize
new weak-hydrogen bonds)
*correcting replication
errors*
-DNA polymerase can...
.add an extra nucleotide
.add the wrong nucleotide
.skip a nucleotide
REPLICATION 5
proof-reader enzyme:
Identifies problematic
or damaged nucleotides
*mutations
*mutations*
the few errors that remain
in the final DNA molecule
= premanent genetic
changes
(not always bad)
TRANSCRIPTION
process in which genetic
information is copied from
the DNA into RNA
RNA
-ribonucleic acid
-single strand
-ribose sugar
-uses the base uracil instead of thymine
-can leave the nucleus
3 TYPES OF RNA
MRNA
TRNA
RRNA
MRNA
messenger- carries info
from the nucleus to the
ribosomes in the cytoplasm
TRNA
transfer- carries amino
acids in the cytoplasm
to the ribosomes
RRNA
ribosomal- combines with
proteins to form ribosomes
TRANSCRIPTION
PROCESS 1
initiation- RNA- P finds the
promoter sequence
DNA is opened and structures
are separated
TRANSCRIPTION
PROCESS 2
elongation- RNA- P finds
nucleotides and bonds
them to bases on the
DNA coding
strand
Only one side of the DNA is transcribed
TRANSCRIPTION
PROCESS 3
MG cap is attached
TRANSCRIPTION
PROCESS 4
termination
-transcription continues
until the terminator sequence
is reached
-primary transcript grates
off and a poly-A tail is
attached at the end
TRANSCRIPTION
PROCESS 5
primary transcript- MRNA
leaves the nucleus and travels
through the E.R. to the
ribosomes for translation
-DNA returns to its
original form
CODONS
-codon- a three-base
code
-each codon contains
codes for an amino acid
-64 possible combos, so
more than one can code
for a particular amino acid.
SPECIAL
CODONS
start: AUG
stop: UAA, UAG, UGA
TRANSLATION
AKA: protein synthesis
-ribosome "translates"
protein instructions from
MRNA and builds protein
molecules
-MRNA is a template for
ordering amino acids
****TRNA
anticodon- complimentary
base of a codon
amino acid bonding site
TRANSLATION
STEP 1
initiation- MG cap of
MRNA attaches to P-Site
of ribosome. Start codon
AUG signals beginning.
-ribosome reads codons
from MRNA strand and
signals for specific TRNA
molecules to carry proper
amino acids to the ribosome.
TRANSLATION
STEP 2
elongation- TRNAs bring
requested amino acids.
Enzymes catalyze a peptide
bond between amino acids
linking the newly formed
protein molecule
-p site
-a site
TRANSLATION
STEP 3
termination- process
continues until a stop
codon is reached
ADDITIONAL
SEQUENCES
Enhancer sequence-
DNA segment that must
be read by RNA-polymerase
before the promoter.
Operator sequence-
DNA segment that serves
as a binding site.
Blocks transcription
from occuring.
Usually found in digestive
enzymes.
Must be removed by RNA
- Polymerase.
PROMOTER SEQUENCE
MUTATION
a permanent change in DNA
CAUSES OF
MUTATION
external influences
-exposure to specific
chemicals or radiation.
These agents cause the
DNA to breakdown
DNA copying errors
-most common type of
mutation. Random and
considered "naturally occuring".
GENE (POINT)
MUTATIONS
- most common type
- only one gene harmed
- types
*replacement
*deletion
*addition
CHROMOSOMAL
MUTATIONS
*very drastic, involves a
huge amount of genes
*rarely passed on on
(often results in death
or severe abnormalities)
*Occurs during mieosis
from errors in chromosome
division.
TRANSLATION
AKA: protein synthesis
-ribosome "translates"
protein instructions from
MRNA and builds protein
molecules
-MRNA is a template for
ordering amino acids
****TRNA
anticodon- complimentary
base of a codon
amino acid bonding site
TRANSLATION
STEP 1
initiation- MG cap of MRNA
attaches to P-Site of ribosome.
Start codon AUG signals
beginning.
-ribosome reads codons
from MRNA strand and
signals for specific TRNA
molecules to carry proper
amino acids to the ribosome.
TRANSLATION
STEP 2
elongation- TRNAs bring
requested amino acids.
Enzymes catalyze a peptide
bond between amino acids
linking the newly formed
protein molecule
-p site
-a site
TRANSLATION
STEP 3
termination- process
continues until a stop
codon is reached
ADDITIONAL
SEQUENCES
Enhancer sequence-
DNA segment that must
be read by RNA-polymerase
before the promoter.
Operator sequence-
DNA segment that serves
as a binding site.
Blocks transcription
from occuring.
Usually found in digestive
enzymes.
Must be removed by RNA-
Polymerase.
PROMOTER SEQUENCE
MUTATION
a permanent change in DNA
CAUSES OF
MUTATION
external influences
-exposure to specific
chemicals or radiation.
These agents cause the
DNA to breakdown
DNA copying errors
-most common type of
mutation. Random and
considered "naturally occuring".
GENE (POINT)
MUTATIONS
- most common type
- only one gene harmed
- types
*replacement
*deletion
*addition
CHROMOSOMAL
MUTATIONS
*very drastic, involves a huge
amount of genes
*rarely passed on on
(often results in death
or severe abnormalities)
*Occurs during mieosis
from errors in chromosome
division.
CHROMOSOMAL
MUTATIONS CONT.
Types: translocation,
insertion, deletion
Nondisjunction
NONDISJUNCTION
When a set of homologous
chromosomes do not
separate in mieosis
EX: downs syndrome,
trisomy
-Homologous
Chromosomes fail to
separate --downs
syndrome=trisomy
chromosome # 21
TRANSPOSONS
-"Jumping Genes"
-Change of location of
genes in somatic cells
-Barbara McClintock
GENETIC ENGINEERING 1
MANIPULATING GENES
DNA technology used for
curing diseases, treating
genetic disorders, and
improving food
GENETIC ENGINEERING 2
RECOMBINANT DNA
-restriction enzymes chop
DNA into small pieces
-it reads specific sequences
of nucleotides in both
directions
-Enzyme reads AATTC
-Sticky ends form on section
that was cut
________________________>
G/AATTC G/AATTC
CTTAA/G CTTAA/G
<--------------------
GENETIC ENGINEERING 2-
RECOMBINANT DNA CONT.
-donor gene is placed in
a "cloning vector" (bacteria)
-Bacterial Plasmid-
King of DNA
*plasmid is cut and a
specific gene is removed
*Donor Gene is Inserted
*Bacteria reproduces this gene
DNA FINGERPRINTING 1
RFLP analysis (Restriction
Fragment Polymorphism)
-common
-large quantities of
DNA sample
-Inexpensive
DNA FINGERPRINTING 2
PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)
-less common
-more exact
smaller quantities needed.