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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are enzymes?
organic (protein) catalysts that speed up chemical reactions
Enzymes ____ the activation energy needed for a reactions to begin.
Enzymes usually end in ____.
What are the four main macromolecules?
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids
What is the monomer of all carbohydrates?
What is the monomer of all proteins?
Amino Acids
What is the monomer of Nucleic acids?
What elements are Carbohydrates made up of?
Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen.
Carbohydrates are used primarily to ________.
store and release energy.
What are the three basic types of Carbohydrates?
monosaccarides, disaccharides and Polysaccharides.
What is the basic chemical formula for all Carbohydrates?
What is shape and chemical formula for glucose?
Hexagon. C6H12O6
What is the shape and chemical formula for Fructose?
Pentagon. C6H12O6
What molecules does sucrose consist of?
Glucose and Fructose.
What molecules does lactose consist of?
Glucose and Galactose.
What is starch made up of?
A branched chain of glucose.
Plants make ____ molecules and then store them in a long chain called ______.
glucose molecules, starch
_______ is a highly branched chain of glucose.
Glycogen is found in ____________.
the livers of animals.
________ is a chain of glucose hooked together like a chain-linked fence.
_______ is made by plants ofr structual support. Often called fiber.
Cellulose contains ______ bonds.
What elements are lipids made up of?
Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen, but not a lot of oxygen
Lipids are used for _________________,___________, ________________
long-term energy storage, membrane functions, protective coatings
Lipids are also known as _______ & _________.
fats and oils.
Lipids are ________ which means they don't dissolve in water.
non-polar, or hydrophobic
A typical lipid molecule conatains: __________.
one glycerl molecule and three fatty acid chains (CH2 units)
__________ & _________ are the two types of fatty acid chains.
saturated and unsaturated
Saturated fats are consist of ____ fats.
Saturated fats are very rigid and are normally __ at room temp. because there only have ______ bonds.
solid, single
Unsaturated fats consist of ____ fats.
Unsaturated fats are normally _____ at room temp. because they have ____ bonds.
liquid, double.
What elements are Proteins made of?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and some Sulfer.
What is a peptide bond?
The covalent bond between two amino acids.
What are four main functions of proteins?
structural support (keratin), immune systems (antibodies), membrane functions, bio-chem. reactions (enzymes)
What is a dipeptide?
Two amino acids linked by a peptide bond.
What is a plypeptide?
(A Protein) a Long chain of amino acida linked by a peptide bond.
What are the three main parts of an amino acid?
The carboxal group, the amino group and the R group
What elements are Nucleic Acids made of?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Phosphorous
What are the three main parts of a Nucleotide?
sugar (ribos), nitrogen base and a phosphate group.
There are __ Nitrogen Bases.
What is DNA?
deoxyriboucleic acid. encodes information( order of nitrogen bases)
What is RNA?
Ribonucleic acid, in the interemediate sage of encoding information.
What is condensation?
A reaction/process of joinign two smaller molecules to synthesize one larger molecule. removes one h20 molecule
What is Hydrolysis?
The reverse of condensation. process of splitting a larger molecule into two smaller molecules. Always adds one H20 molecule.
What are some examples of enzymes?
amalase, lactase, and maltase.
What determineswhich reactions a particular enzyme will catalyze?
Its shape.
What does the term 'denature' mean?
When the shape of an enzyme molecule is changed.
What are 4 examples of what can denature an enzyme?
high temperature, concentration of enzyme, pH, salinty
What is a polymer?
a long cnain of bonded molecules
What is an 'active site'?
Where the substrate binds to an enzyme.
What does it mean that substrates 'induce a fit'?
The enyme 'fills in the hole', or changes itself a tiny bit to better bind with the enzyme.
What does a competitive inhibitor do?
It mimics the substrates an competes for the active site of an enzyme.
What does a non-competitive inhibitor do?
It binds to the regulartory region of an enzyme and changes the active site's shape so it can't bind
What macromolecule do these terms relate to: celluose and lactose
What macromolecule do these terms relate to: Nucleotide and double helix
Nucleic acids
What macromolecule do these terms relate to: Insulin, R-group and cellulase
What macromolecule do these terms relate to: Glycerol, Cholesterol
What are some examples of lipids?
fats (tri-glycerides), waxws, oils, cell membrane components, pigments, steriods, vitamins
What is polyunsaturated?
triglycerides that have multiple kinks at regular intervals. usually liquid at room temp.