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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
bacterial DNA replication
DNA attached to plasma membrane
DNA replication begins at replication origin
enzymes replicate DNA
Eukaryotic DNA vs. bacterial DNA
linear vs. circular
eukar. is much longer
chromatin
DNA and protein
nucleosome
DNA and 8 histone proteins
heterochromatin
condensed tightly and never expressed, never uncoils for transcription
euchromatin
open (able to be expressed) except during cell division
G1
primary growth phase, doubles in size, organelles and cytoplasm double
S phase
DNA replicates
G@
secondary growth phase
special structures needed for cell division form
-chromosomes begin coiling (condensing)
-spindle fibers attach to kinetochore proteins near centromeme region of chromosome
Mitosis
cell division
cytokinesis
cell actually pinches in two
feedback regulation at 3 checkpoints
G1, G2, metaphase
CdKs
protein kinase that activates numerous cell proteins by phosphorylating them, molecular regulation of cell cycle
cyclin
proteins that bind to CdKs proteins, activating them
sexual reproduction
union of gametes (fertilization or syngamy)
Meiosis characteristics only
-two division instead of one
-synapsis or crossing over (prophase)
-reduction division
prophase I
-chromosomes condense, nucleus and nucleoli disappear
-synapsis or crossing over occurs between chromatids of adjacent homologous chromosomes
metaphase I
homologous pairs of chromosomes line up at the equatior (random assortment)
anaphase I
homologous pairs of chromosomes pull apart, reduction division occurs
telophase I
new cell has half the amount of chromosomes as the original parent and each chromosomes is different due to crossing over
meiosis II
exactly like mitosis, but with haploid cells
law of segregation
during gamete formation, alleles separate. one allele (of the pair) goes to each gamete
law of independent assortment
which allele goes to which gamete is a random event
principle of dominance
a dominant trait masks the appearance of a recessive one
test cross
if you have a dominant phenotype and want to determine the original genotype, always use the homozygous recessive to test it
product law
the chance that a number of independent events will occur together is equal to the product of the chances that each individual event will occur separately
epistasis
one gene, in homozygous recessive form, blocks the expression of the dominant gene
polygenic
two or more genes contribute to the phenotype in an additive way, aka continuous variation (skin pigmentation, human height)
pleiotropy
one allele can cause more than one phenotype effect.
incomplete dominane
genotype and phenotype ratios are always the same because the heterozygote genotypes results in phenotypes between the dominant and recessive traits
multiple alleles
more than 2 alleles (forms a gene takes) exist in a population
autosomes
body chromosomes or somatic chromosomes, humans have 22 pairs
karyotype
a map of homologous pairs of chromosomes
nondisjunction
homologous pairs of chromosomes do not separate properly
monosomics
loss of an autosome
trisomic
extra autosome