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37 Cards in this Set

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A microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange.
A hard material embedded in the cellulose matrix of vascular plant cell walls that functions as an important adaptation for support in the terrestrial species.
(1) A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants. (2) The exoskeleton of an arthropod, consisting of layers of protein and chitin that are variously modified for different functions.
The multicellular haploid form in organisms undergoing alternation of generations, which mitotically produces haploid gametes that unite and grow into the sporophyte generation.
The multicellular diploid form in organisms undergoing alternation of generations that results from a union of gametes and that meiotically produces haploid spores that grow into the gametophyte generation.
vascular tissue
Plant tissue consisting of cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant body.
A vascular plant that bears naked seeds not enclosed in any specialized chambers.
A flowering plant, which forms seeds inside a protective chamber called an ovary.
The tube-shaped, nonliving portion of the vascular system in plants that carries water and minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant.
The portion of the vascular system in plants consisting of living cells arranged into elongated tubes thats transport sugar and other organic nutrients throughout the plant.
Referring to plants in which a single type of spore develops into a bisexual gametophyte having both male and female sex organs.
Referring to plants in which the sporophyte produces two kinds of spores that develop into unisexual gametophytes, either female or male.
A water-conducting and supportive element of xylem composed of long, thing cells with tapered ends and walls hardened with lignin.
vessel elements
A specialized short, wide cell in angiosperms; arranged end to end, they form continuous tubes for water transport.
The one (monocot) or two (dicot) seed leaves of an angriosperm embryo.
Plant tissue that remains embryonic as long as the plant lives, allowing for indeterminate growth.
primary growth
Growth initiated by the apical meristems of a plant root or shoot.
secondary growth
The increase in girth of the stems and roots of many plants, especially woody, perennial dicots.
A primary meristem of roots and shoots that forms the vascular tissue.
water potential
The physical property predicting the direction in which water will flow, governed by solute concentration and applied pressure.
turgor pressure
The force directed against a cell wall after the influx of water and the swelling of a walled cell due to osmosis.
bulk flow
The movement of water due to a difference in pressure between two locations.
The binding together of like molecules, often by hydrogen bonds.
Casparian strip
A water-impermeable ring of wax around endodermal cells in plants that blocks the passive flow of water and solutes into the stele by way of cell walls.
Growth of a plant shoot toward or away from light.
A response of a plant or animal in relation to gravity.
A physiological response to day length, such as flowering in plants.
A class of plant hormones, including indoleacetic acid (IAA), having a variety of effects, such as phototropic response through the stimulation of secondary growth, and the development of leaf traces and fruit.
A class of related plant hormones that reatard aging and act in concert with auxins to stimulate cell division, influence the pathway of differentiation, and control apical dominance.
A class of related plant hormones that stimulate growth in the stem and leaves, trigger the germination of seeds and breaking of bud dormacy, and stimulate fruit development with auxin.
abscisic acid
A plant hormone that generally acts to inhibit growth, promote dormancy, and help the plant tolerate stressful conditions.
The only gaseous plant hormone, responsible for fruit ripening, growth inhibition, leaf abscission, and aging.
Plants may tell up from down by the settling of statoliths, specialized plastids containing dense starch grains, to the low points of cells.
circadian rhythm
A phsiological cycle of about 24 hours, present in all eukaryotic organisms, that persists even in the absence of external cues.
sieve tubes
The food-conducting cells of ploem are sieve-tube members. the cells are living at functional maturity, but lack nuclei. Alongside each sieve-tube member is a nucleated companion cell.
guard cells
Specialized epidermal cells
The clinging of one substance to another.