Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/35

Click to flip

35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A virus that infectst bacteria, also called a bacteriophage
phage
The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands
double helix
predicts that when a double helix replicates, each of the two daughter molecules will have one old strand, derived from the parent molecules, and one newly made strand.
semiconservative model
A Y-shaped point on a replicating DNA molecule where new strands are growing
replication fork
An enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of new DNA at a replication fork by the addition of nucleotides to the existing chain
DNA polymerase
A linking enzyme essential for DNA replication; catalyzes the covalent bonding of the 3' end of a new DNA fragment to the 5' end of a growing chain
DNA ligase
An already existsing RNA chain bound to template DNA to which DNA nucleotides are added during DNA synthesis
primer
is an enzyme that untwists te double helix at the replication fork, separating the two old strands
helicase
DNA-cutting enzyme (damaged part of DNA would be cut out)
nuclease
An enzyme that catalyzes the lenghtening of telomeres; the enzyme includes a molecule of RNA that serves as a template for new telomere segments
telomerase
The synthesis of RNA on a DNA template
transcription
The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in a mRNA molecule. There is a change of language from nucleotides to amino acids
translation
A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.
codon
An enzyme that links together the growing chain of ribonucleotides during transcription.
RNA polymerase
Within the promoter the TATA box is located about 25 nucleotides upstream from the transcriptional startpoint. RNA polymerase II cannot recognize the TATA box and other landmarks of the promoter on its own. Transcription factors that recognize the TATA box bind to the DNA before RNA polymerase can do so.
TATA box
A noncoding, intervening sequence within a eukaryotic gene.
intron
A coding retion of a eukaryotic gene that is expressed. Exons are separated from eachother by introns
exon
transfer RNA's function is to transfer amino acids from the cytoplasm's amino acid pool to a ribosome. Interpreter of the mRNA molecule.
tRNA
ribosomal RNA are found in ribosomal subunits along with proteins
rRNA
A change in a geve at a single nucleotide pair.
point mutation
A mutation involving the addition of one or more nucleotide pairs to a gene
insertion
(1) A deficiency in a chromosome resulting from the loss of a fragment through breakage. (2) A mutational loss of a nucleotide from a gene.
deletion
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes mutation
mutagens
A mutation occuring when the number of nucleotides inserted or deleted is not a multiple of 3, thus resulting in improper grouping into codons.
frameshift mutation
An enzyme encoded by some RNA viruses that uses RNA as a template for DNA synthesis.
reverse transcriptase
The protein shell that encloses the viral genome; rod-shaped, polyhedral, or more completely shaped.
capsid
A phage genome that has been inserted into a specific site on the bacterial chromosome.
prophage
A type of viral replication cycle resulting in the release of new phages by death or lysis of the host cell.
lytic cycle
Viral DNA that inserts into a host genome.
provirus
an RNA virus that reproduces by transcribing its RNA into DNA and then inserting the DHA into a cellular chromosome; an important class of cancer-causing viruses
retrovirus
A plant pathogen composed of molecules of naked RNA only several hundred nucleotides long
viroid
(1) The conversion of a normal animal cell to a canerous cell. (2) A phenomenon in which external DNA is assimilated by a cell.
transformation
In bacteria, the transfer of DNA between two cells that are temporarily joined.
conjugation
A unit of genetic function common in bacteria and phages, consisting of coordinately regulated clusters of genes with related functions.
operon
A protein that suppresses the transcription of a gene
repressor