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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
an inflammation of a joint or joints
a tough, flexible connective tissue found in humans and animals
tailbone; the lowest section of the vertebral column, consisting of four separate vertebrae in infants but fused into a single bone in adults, that serves as an attachment for various muscles and as a shock absorber
a sudden, painful, involuntary contraction of the muscle that can result from a temporary shortage of ATP in the muscle cell
the portion of the skull which encloses and protects the brain
a tough, translucent sheath of connective tissue that surrounds a skeletal muscle and binds it togeth; also called epimysium
fontanel-the tough membranes that connect the bones of an infant's skull together, made up of fibrous connective tissue; the fontanels are responsible for the infant's 'soft spots' on their head.

suture-any of the uneven immovable joints that join the bones of the skull together
fontanel and suture
a break or crack in a bone
hypertrophy-the enlargement of an organ or tissue; specifically, the enlargement of muscles through use

atrophy-the wasting away or decrease in size of an organ or tissue; specifically, the degeneration of muscles
hypertrophy and atrophy
a place whre two bones join together, or articulate
a goup of muscle cells connected to a single motor nerve
motot unit
an individual skeletal muscle cell
muscle fiber
the awareness of body movements and of the location of body parts that results from proper coordination between the muscular and nervous systems
muscle sense
a state of slight tension in a relaxed muscle in which a small percentage of muscle fibers are contracted even when the muscle is at rest; keeps muscles from sagging, gives flesh its proper firmness, and keeps muscles "ready for action"
muscle tone
the point at which a motor nerve connects to a muscle cell
neuromuscular junction
the process of bone growth and development in which a cartilaginous form of a bone is replaced by collagen-reinforced hydroxyapatite crystals
osteoclasts-"bone destroyer"; a type of cell found in bone tissue that removes old bone materials to make room for new

osteoblasts-"bone grower"; a type of cell found in bone tissue that constructs new bone
osteoclasts and osteoblasts
the bones of the shoulder, consisting of the shoulder blades (scapulae) and the collarbones (clavicles)
pectoral girdle
small bones that form the segments of the fingers and toes
red fibers-muscle fibers that contain many mitochondria and large amounts of myoglobin

white fibers-muscle fibers containing fewer mitochondria and less myoglobin
red fibers and white fibers
a disease in which the bones are weak and deformed, caused by a lack of vitamin D
a cavity or hollow space, such as the air cavities of the skull that seve to make the skull lighter and give it its characteristic vocal quality
a clear, water-based lubricant, resembling egg white in appearance and consistency, that lubricates a freely movable joint
synovial fluid
tendon-a "cable" of tough fibers that attaches a muscle to a bone

ligament-segments of tough connective tissue that join bones to other bones or seve to hold organs in place
tendon and ligament
the bones of the chest: includes the ribs and sternum
thoracic cage
the chief structural member of the body, also known as the spine, spinal column, or backbone,; the vertical pillar of vertebrae located in the back that supports the body and protects the spinal cord
vertebral column
the principle that bones adjust their shapes to the physical stresses placed upon them
Wolff's law