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39 Cards in this Set

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Calorie-an amount of energy equal to the heat required to raise the temp. of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius; often called a kilocalorie to distinguish it from the calorie used in physics

Calorie, kilocalorie

cholesterol, triglyceride
a fat cell
adipose cell
the digestive tube that runs from the mouth to the anus
alimentary canal
substances that neutralize harmful moelcules called free radicals that would otherwise damage important cell parts; examples are vitamin C and vitamin E
a special phosphorus compound that seves as the energy carrier of a cell and as a convenient form for the temporary storage of chemical energy; is used to power most cell processes
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
Calorie-an amount of energy equal to the heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius; often called kilocalorie to distinguish it from the calorie (lowercase c) used in physics

organic compounds, such as sugars, starches, and cellulose, that consist of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in roughly a 1:2:1 ratio; serve as a cell's primary fuel supply
cholesterol-a lipid, manufactured by the liver, that is necessary for the production of bile, vitamin D, and some hormones

triglyceride-a lipid molecule composed of three fatty acid molecules held together by a single molecule of glycerol; a fat molecule

colon-the large intestine

rectum-a muscular tube at the end of the alimentary canal used to store undigested material and expel it to the outside

substances such as cellulose in the diet that are not digested but help the intestines to function efficiently
dietary fiber
the changing of food substances with large complex chemical molecules into substances which have smaller, less complex molecules so that they can be used by body cells
the first ten inches of thesmall intestine as it comes from the stomach
a medical tem for gastric indigestion producing symptoms of heartburn, belching, nausea, and vomiting
protein molecules that are produced by living cells and serve as catalysts; perform such functions as tranforming raw materials into useful substances, breaking down food moelcules to produce energy, and breaking down old proteins to be recycled
a strong acid produced and released by the stomach that aids digestion and helps prevent harmful bacteria from invading the digestive tract
hydrochloric acid
organic compounds composed of chains of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, but having much less oxygen than carbohydrates; used to store energy, to build cell parts, and to construct various hormones
a large, reddish-brown organ located in the upper right side of the abdomen just beneath the diaphragm; serves vital funtions in the digestive system, the circulatory system, the excretory system, and even the lymphatic and immune systems
a glandular organ in the abdominal cavity that secretes hormones and digestive enzymes
a saclike organ beneath the liver that is used to store bile and release it to the small intestine
the sum of all cellular or body activities related to the use of food and oxygen
the condition of being 20% or more over one's ideal weight due to excess fat
technical term for the mouth
oral cavity
the throat; the portion of the digestive tract between the mouth and the esophagus
the muscular tube that connects the pharynx with the stomach
a chemical process whereby a substance is combined with oxygen
the rhythmic wave of muscular contractions of the exophagus and digestive tract that serves to move the contents through the tract
(1) deposits of fatty material and calcuim buildup in the wall of a blood vessel; (2) a thin, transparent film of bacteria (primarily Streptococcus mutans) that accumulates ont eh surface of teeth and hardens into tartar if not removed
the medical term for tooth decay or "cavities"
dental caries
complex organic molecules used to build and maintain living cells; consist of complex chains of amino acids
any of the approximately 22 organic moelcules that serve as the "building blocks" of proteins
amino acids
any of several common forms of bacterial infection (food poinsoning) that occur when bacteria of the genus Salmonella get into or on food
a long, muscular tube that serves as the primary organ of digestion and absorption
small intestine
a complex carbohydrate moelecule that consists of a long chain of simple carbohydrates
an enlargement of the alimentary canal which functions as an organ of storage and digestion
an open sore on a covering or lining of the body, especially in the stomach or alimentary canal
villi-the miscroscopic projections of the internal lining of the small intestine that provide a large surface area for the absorption of material into the body

microvilli-any of the fine extensions of the epithelial cells of the villi in the small intestine that greatly increse the surface area for absorption

important organic substances found in foods tha are needed in small amounts for the proper functioning of an organism's chemical processes, or metabolism, most serve as coenzymes
an inorganic substance necessary in the diet for proper growth and repair of tissues