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38 Cards in this Set

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General characteristics of all animals
multicellular heterotroph
diversity
no cell walls
ability to move, greater mobility
sexual reproduction
embryonic development
zygote to
morulla (solid ball of cells) to
blastula (hollow ball of cells) to
blastula with blastopore (folds inward, opening called a blastopore)

called gastrulation
parazoa
no symmetry, tissues of organs
eumetazoa
animals with symmetry, tissue, organs, organ systems
Classification by number of embryonic tissue layers
*
diploblastic
two tissue layers, endoderm (inner) and ectoderm (outer)

found in Radiata
triploblastic
three layers, ectoderm, mesoderm (middle) and endoderm

found in platyhelminthes through chordates
classification by looking at transitions in body plan
*
symmetry
*
asymmetry
primitive, no symmetry shape but an irregular mass of cells, sponges
radial symmetry
parts of the body are arranged around a central axis, first seen in salt marine animals
bilateral symmetry
"sidedness"
cephalization
longitudinal nerve cords and clusters of cells in anterior regions of organisms probably led to the development of specialized organs like the brain
body cavity
a body cavity needs to exist to house specail organs
acoelomate
no body cavity

prorifera, radiata, platyhelminthes
psuedocoelomate
a flase cavity of psuedocoel is a cavity between mesoderm and endoderm

nematoda, rotifera
coelomate
a coelem (body cavity) develops with mesoderm

mollusks through chordates
coelomate characteristics
since cavity is internal and fluids are prevented from circulating, circulating systems arose to carry materials to all cells

allows contact between mesoderm and endoderm cells which influence each other during development- called induction
classification by transition from non-segmented to segmented
*
advantages of segmentation
1. a complete organ system in each system helps organism stay alive if one section gets damaged
2. better locomotion due to increased flexibility of motion
classification by type of digestive system
for organisms with digestive systems with 2 openings (mouth and anus)
protostomes
mouth appears first developmentally
blastopore becomes the mouth

nematode through arthropoda
dueterostomes
anus appears first developmentally
blastopore becomes anus

enchinodermata, chordata (links pro=fist, stomes=opening, deutero=second)
characteristics of chordates
hollow dorsal nerve cord
notocord-flexible rod that is replaced by vertebra in higher organisms
pharyngeal slits (gill slits)
postanal tail
urochordata
sea squirts and tunicates
cephalochordata
lancelets which look almost like fish
vertebrata
chordates with spinal columns
characteristics of only vertebrates (not other 2 subphyla)
vertebral column-bone replaces notochord
a well-differentiated head with a skull and a brain
neural crest during development
internal organs
endoskeleton
vertebrate reproductive styles
*
oviparity (oviparous)
fertilization is internal, eggs laid outside the body

birds, some fish, reptiles, prmitive mammals
ovoviviparity (ovoviviparous)
eggs form and are incubated and hatch inside the mother's body

some fish and reptiles
viviparity (viviparous)
young develop inside the mother's body and obtain nourishment from mother's blood (not yolk)

in mammals (except monotremes) this occurs through placenta
vertebrate heart types
*
2 chambered heart
no separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood

fish
3 chambered heart
incomplete septum and some mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood

amphibians, reptiles
4 chambered heart
complete septum. complete separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood

mammals, bird
major trends in vertebrate evolution
ectothermal (cold-blooded) to endothermal (warm-blooded)
-high body size (more body mass or volume in relation to surface area, gives low heat loss)
3. diversification of teeth
4. better mobility-elongation, specialization of limbs
5. cartilage to bone
6. external fertilization to internal fertilization
7. oviparous to viviparous
8. 2 to 4 chambered heart
9. gills to lungs
10. cephalization