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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the seven core attributes of life?
energy utilization
response to the enviornment
evolutionary adaptation
Photosynthesis emerges at the ________level in the ________
organelle, chloroplasts
At what level of organization does the property of being "alive" emerge?
the cell level.
What is reductionism?
reducing complex systems to simpler conponents that are more manageable to study.
What is an open system?
an entity that exchanges materials and energy with its surroundings.
Prokaryotic Cell - the name of the structures that are surface appendages that allow a bacterium to stick to a surface.
Prokaryotic Cell - Where are proteins synthesized?
Prokaryotic cell - identify the sticky, jellylike protective layer outside the cell wall
Prokaryotic cell -name of the rigid structure, outside the plasma membrane, that surrounds, supports, and protects the cell
cell wall
This acts as a a selective barrier, allowing passage of oxygen, nutrients, and wastes
plasma membrane
Prokaryotic cell - Where is the cell's DNA, containing the genes that control the cell?
Nucleoid region
Prokaryotic cell - Which structure propels the cell?
______ are the cells information molecules
nucleic acids
2 kinds of nucleic acids are:
DNA directs the manufacture of ____
In eukaryotic cells, protein systhesis occurs in ____ steps
In protein systhesis, first information is transferred from ______ to ________
DNA to Messenger RNA
After the Information from the DNA is transferred to messenger RNA, ______
The RNA leaves the nucleus and carries the information from the DNA to the ribosomes
The message in the sequence of RNA _________ is translated into a sequence of _______
nucleotides, amino acids
amino acids are linked to form a ________
_______ are indispensible to the study of cells.
DNA consists of 2 _________ twisted together to form a ___________
nucleotides, double helix
Who discovered cells?
Robert Hooke
How does a light microscope work?
a light microscope uses visible light to pass through the specimen, then the lenses bend the light resulting in magnification.
how does an electron microscope work?
it focuses a beam of electrons through the specimen or onto its surface.
Why does an electron microscope have stronger resolving power?
Because resolving power is inversely related to the wavelength of radiation a microscope uses, and electrons have wavelenths much shorter than the wavelengths of visible light.
What is Cell Theory? (2 main points)All living things consist of cells. All cells come from other cells. This is_________
All living things consist of cells. All cells come from other cells.
magnification is...
the ratio of an object's image to its real size
All cells are related by...
their descent from earlier cells and evolution
Resolution is...
The measure of the clarity of an image, the minimum distance two poits can be separated and still be considered 2 points.
All organic molecules, such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, contain the element ____________
Plants use _____ as a source of energy.
What element is found in all organic compounds?
What name is given to organisms that convert the carbon in organic compounds into carbon in carbon dioxide?
Prokaryotic cells are found in the domain(s) _____.
Bacteria and Archaea
what are catalytic molecules?
what are the 2 main structural differences in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
Eukaryotic has true nucleus and membrane enclosed organelles. Prokaryotic do not.
approximately how big are eukaryotic cells?
10 micrometers.
what is a good unit for measuring cells?
what is a good unit for measuring the demensions of biomonelcules
why are cells so small?
diffusion problem - need to get from middle to edge of cell and cant take a long time
when things get bigger, surface to volume ratio goes down, creating this problem
what are the two main ways biologist study cells (since they are so small)?
- fractionation followed by biochemical analysis
- microscopy
what are the three disadvantages to an electron microscope?
- material cannot be alive, no motion
- no color
- expensive
what are artifacts?
structural features seen in micrographs that do not exist in the living cell.
what is the instrument used to fractionate cells?
a centrifuge
what are the two resulting parts after the centrifuge is spun?
pellet (heavier structures at the bottom)
supernatant ( smaller lighter parts of the cell suspended in the liquid above the pellet)
Why are eukaryotic cells generally bigger than prokaryotic cells?
because the logistics of metabolism set a limit on cell size.
anything that takes up space and has mass
a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions is an
there are _____ naturally occuring elements recognized today
a substance consisting of two or more elements conbined in a fixed ratio
A substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by ordinary chemical procedures is a(n)____________
Changing the number of _____ would change an atom into an atom of a different element.
protons in an atom
How an atom behaves when it comes into contact with other atoms is determined by its _____.
electron configuration
true/false: Hydrogen bonding is most often seen when hydrogen is covalently bonded to an electronegative atom