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128 Cards in this Set

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DNA
signature molecule of a cell-smallest unit that has the capacity for life-deoxyrybonucleic acid
Inheritance
acquiaition of traits through the transmission of DNA from paretns to fofspring
Reproductioin
actual mechanisms fo transmitting DNA to offspring
Lineage
an ancestor/descendent squence of populations
Variations
difference that occur in offspring due to mutations
Mutations
point changes in DNA or changes in structure or number of DNA molecules
Evolution
geneological descent with modification
Monophyletic
the idea the all lifeforms have a common ancestor and all of descendents; recongized by a pattern of shared derived characters
Metabolism
living cells' copacity to obtain and convert energy from its surroundings and use energy to maintian itself, grow, and produce more cells
Receptors/stimulus
the molecules and structures that detect simuli, which is a specific form of energy that a receptor can detect
ATP
adenaphine tri-phosphate, the thing all lifeforms use to transport energy
Kingdoms
Protistans, plants, fungi, animals, eukaryotes, archaebacteria, eubacteria
Hydrophilic
water loving
Hydrophobic
fear of water
Natural selection
result of difference in survival and reproduction among individuals of a population that vary in one or more of their shared, heritable traits
Carbohydrates
molecules of carbon, hydrogen, and xygen mostely in a 1:2:1 ratio
Monosaccharide
type of carb; alone, single
Oligosaccharide
type of carb; short chain carb of two ro more convalently bonded sugar monomers
Polysaccharide
type of carb; straight or branched chaing of many covalently linked sugar units of the same or different kinds, (cellulose, starch, and glycogen)
Complex carbs
plymers of 100 to 1000 unites
Glycogen
branched chain (in animals) of energy storage
Lipids
greasy or oily compunds, will not dissolved in water (no charge)
Glycerides
fatty acids attached to glycerol
Phospholipids
in membranes
Amino acids
building blocks of a protein (structure, enzymes, transporters, antibodies
Primary structure
chain of amino acides
Secondary structure
coiling or flat sheets
tertiary structure
complex pattern of bending and folding (interaction of R groups)
Quaternary structure
2 or more polypeptide chains
Neucleic acids
a polymer of nuecleoides; it has three parts : phosphate group, sugar, base
Cell membrane
composed of a pospholipid bilayer and proteins; is differentiall permiable
Diffusion
net movement of like molecules or ions downs their concentration gradient
Hypotonic fluid
a fluid with fewer solutes
hypertonic fluid
a fluid with more solutes
Osmosis
movement of H2O across a selectivesly permiable membrane
Active Transport
proteins used that require ATP
Passive Transport
prteins used
Diffusion over lipid bilayer
does not involve proteins
Exocytosis
elements go out
Endocytosis
elements go in
Prokaryotic cells
cells in bacteria and archeans (archecacteria)
Ancestral cell structure
gave rise to eukaryotes
Nucleus
in all ekaryotes; 2-layerd nuclear envelope with pores
Nucleosis
RNA+proteins assembled into ribosoml subunits
Chromosomes
DNA complexed with histone proteins
Cytomembrane system
located in all eukaryotes; contains endoplasmic reticulum, golgi bodies, vesicles
Endoplasmic reticulum
transport of proteins; modification of proteins by adding oligosaccharides
Golgi bodies
lipid synthesis (plants) plus modification of lipids and proteins (all eukaryotes)
Lysosomes
digestion/breakdown; special kind of vesicle
Motochondria
endosymbionts; contain DNA (bacteria-like), robosomes, liberate energy stored in glucose (ATP, eorobic respiration); had 2 membranes
Chloroplasts
an endosymbient (most derived from photosynthetic bacteria, the cyanobacteria); located in green plants, some stramenopiles, some alveolates, rod algae, and evglenas
Photosynthesis
using sunlight energy, to make glucose from CO2, and H2O; contain chlorophyll, a light-capturing green pigment
Cytoskeleton
fibers that provide shape, organization, and movement (nearly all eukaryotes)
Mocrotublues
tubulin subunites liked together; important iin maintaining cell shape and movement by forming flagella and ceilia
Centrioles
cyliinders of microtubules used in cell dvivision
Spindle fibers
movement of chromosomes in cell division
Micorofilaments
actin subunits, contraction as in muslces and some plant roots
Cell walls
2 kinds: chitin and cellulose; chitin is in fungi and cellulos in green plants; provide protection, water balance (keeping cells turgid)-->lacks in animals
Vacuole
found in plants
Catalytic molecules
proteins that speed up reactions
Autotrophs
mainly phtosynthetic organisms, get nergy form sun and used CO2, H2O
Heterotrophs
get energy from organic compounds
Photosynthesis-light dependent reactions
sunlight is absorbed, converted to ATP energy; water is split and NADP+ picks up liberated H+ and electrons-->NADPH
Photosynthesis-light independent reactions
ATP drives assmebly of C,H, and O into glucose (C6H12O6); O and C from CO2, H from H2O water (delivered by NADPH)
Stroma
light independ reactions
Thylakoid membranes
light dependent reactions
Chlorophyll
a light trapping pigment; absorbs most light in the violet and red; green light passes through and is reflected by surroundeing tissues
3-phosphogylcerate
C-3 pathway, 3 carbon molecule
Oxaolacetate
C-4 pathway, 4 carbon molecules
Respiration
energy releasing; a downhill reaction, glucose has more energy than CO2
Anaerobic respiration
glycolysis, in cytoplasm, no free O2
Aerobic respiration
O2, Krebs Ccle (matrix of mitochondrion), Electron transport (membranes of mitochondrion)
Electron Transport System
H+ pumped out of inner sompartmnt of mitochondria then used to produce ATPs
Cell division
reproduction, fission, mitosis and meiosis, crhomosome
Reproduction (cells)
daughter cells must be provided with a complete set of genetic instructions (DNA)
fission (cells)
in bacteria and archaens, division of circular strand of DNA
Mitosis and Meiosis (cells)
in eukaryotes
Chromosome (cell)
KNA and attached histone proteins, each cell has 2 of every chromosome (diploid)
Mitosis
used for asexual reproduction, growth of plant or animal bodies
Interphase (cell)
interval between nuclear divisions when a cell increases in mass and roughly doubles the number of its cytoplasmic components; duplicates its chromosomes (replicates DNA
Interphase G1
cell growth before DNa is duplicated
Interphase S
synthesis, period of DNA duplication
Interphase G2
preparation for cell division
Mitosis stages
1)prophase 2)metaphase
3)anaphase 4)telophase...then cytoplasm is divided
Meiosis
for gamete(animal) and spore(plant); sexual reproduction, homologous chromosomes, form pairs, crossing over
Homologous chromosomes
in diploid organisms, pairs of chromosomes that are physically and genetically alike
Meiosis (crossing over)
swap genetic material, between 2 homologous chromosomes
Prophase 1
nuclear envelope breaks apart, chromosomes shorten, spindle forms; chromosome pairs with homologous chromosome
Gene
unit of information about particular trait, at a particular location on the chromosome (locus); different molecualr forms are called alleles
Homozygous
two alike alleles
Heterozygous
two different alleles
Dominant gene
allele expressed in phenotype with just 1 copy
Recessive gene
need 2 copies for expression
Genotype
an indiviuals genes
Phenotype
observable traits in body of organism
Incomplete dominance
offspring have an intermidiate condition
indpendent assortment
during meiosis, the gene pairs of homologous chromosomes tend to be sorted into one gamete or another, independently of how other gene pairs on the other chromosomes are sorted out
Pleiotropy
multiple effects on the same gene
Continuous variation
of a population, a more or less continuous range of small differences in a given trait among its individuals (controled by many genes)
Karyotype
characteristics of metaphse chromosomes, size, number, morphology form
Pedigree
track a trait thorugh gnerations
Genetic disorders
inherited conditions causing medical problems
Galactosemia
1/1000000 defective enzyme in breakdown of lactose; leads to high levels of glactose; liver, eye, brain damage; lactose free diet
Albinism
lack of melanin
Sickle-cell anemia
heterozygotes favored for malarial resistence
Phenylketonuria
cannot metabolise phenylalanine
Autosomal Dominant
trait in each generation; rare, selected gainst; or allele may not prevent reproduction of may not show up until after reproductive age
autosomal inhertitance
recessive allele
X-linked recessive
allele on X chomosome, so shows up usually inmales; a son cannot inherit from father
Deletion
loss of a part of a chromosome
Duplication
region of chromosome is duplicated
Translation
part of one chromosome inserted into another
Centric fusion/fission
when the chromosome splits at the centromere
Inversion
where a pierce of the DNA is inverted (1234-->1324)
Aneuploidy
one more, one less (down syndrome = one more)
Polyploidy
duplication of entrie chromosome set
Transcription
DNA to RNA; produces mRNA; protein building instructions
Translation
RNA to proteins
rRNA
ribosomal RNA, major component of ribosomes; where protein synthesis occurs
tRNA
transfer RNA, molecules that deliver amino acides to ribosomes
Eukaryotes DNA (organization)
bound with many proteins (histone proteins); form of a coil due to histone interactions
DNA Replication
enzymes unwinde DNA, weak H bonds broken; each strand serves as template for construction of complementary straing (DNA polymerase)
Codons
"code words" in translation of mRNA; set of 3 nucleotide bases
tRNA
transfer RNA, carry an amino acide, and have an anticodon (which compliments the codon for that amino acide
Mutations
mistakes in DNA replication
Recombinant DNA
genetic engineering
Plasmids
circular molecule of "extra" DNA in a bacterium; "sex" exchanging plasmids viral DNA
Restriction enzymes
Present in baceria, used it cut up viral DNA, cut at particular points (GAATTC<--cut btwn AA); a virus defense