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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are living things made of?
A nucleus is a solid mass of things caleld what?
Protons & electrons
What "whiz" around in layers that surround the nucleus. What are these layers called?
Electrons, Energy Levels
How many different kinds of atoms occur in nature? What do these different kinds of atoms have different numbers of?
3, protons, neutrons, & electrons
How many elements out of the 90 are essential to organisms?
What four elements make up 96% of the human body?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, & nitrogen
Living things use atoms to make organic molecules such as what?
Carbos, Lipids, & proteins
These bonds are formed when atoms share electrons.
These kinds of bonds are formed when one atom takes electrons from another atom.
_________are atoms joined by covalent bonds & therefore have no overall what?
Molecules, charge
Chemical reactions occur when what between atoms are broken & reformed?
All of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism.
Compounds to the left of the arrow are?
Compounds to the right are the?
Equations must be?
The number before refers to?
Number of molecules or ions
A solution is a mixture in which one or more substances are evenly what in another substance.
________are dissolved in ______
Substances, Solutions
________ the solution inside cells & the solution that bathes cells are important water-based solutions
Concentration: the amount of what in the amount of what?
strength, solution
pH scale decribes whether a substance is what?
acidic, basic, or neutral
Acidic solutions have a high concentration of?
Hydrogen ions
Basic solutions have a high concentration of?
Hydroxide ions
What is mostly water?
What makes up between what percentages of most organisms?
70 & 95%
Molecule with an unequal ditrubution of charge.
Polar Molecule
Water pulls itself up little tubes, which is important for plants. What is this action called?
Capillary action
Water resists what?
temperature changes
Water does what when it freezes?
The movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Eventually particales in a solution will reach a state of ________ _______, where the particles are equally distrubuted.
dynamic equilibruim
Diffusion is how many things move in & out of what?
Diffusion is the way what moves into an organism & carbon dioxide moves out.
About how many trace elements are there?
20, they exist in small amounts
What are the three different states?
Solids, Liquids, & gasses
How is the state determined?
By how fast atoms & molecules move
Overall, what do electrons do?
cancel each other out & balance
List 5 trace elements.
Sulfur, Iron, Calcium, Phosphuros, & Zinc
Chains can be _________, _________ or made of adjacent rings.
straight, branched
Very large molecules(macromolecules) are made in living rganisms using long chains of?
What is a monomer?
Single moelcular unit that creates polymers
When polymers are made by living things, they are called what?
Carbohydrates are molecules composed of?
Carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen
Composed of one ring structure, considered to be monomers for larger carbos. *smallest type of carbohydrates
Composed of two monosac. joined together.
Composed of many monosac. joined together
List examples of Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, & Polysccharides.
Mono.: fructose, glucose
Disac.: sucose
Poly.: glycogen, starch, cellulose
Lipids are composed of? & they are what in water because the are non polar?
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen; insoluble
What are lipids & carbos used for?
to store energy
Proteins are primarily made of?
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, & nitrogen
Proteins can be large, made of thousands of monomers called what?
amino acids
Regulate chemical reactions in the organism by bringing together parts of a molecule or pulling molecules apart.
Nucleic aicds are composed of?
carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, & phosporous
Nucleic acids are huge polymers made up of monomers called? What are 2 examples of N.A.?
Nucleotides; RNA & DNA
What do enzymes do?
force molecules together in a way that will force them to reactm can also pull apart stable molecules
In living tissue a waste product is produced called? As it builds up it becomes?
Hydrogen proroxide; poisonous
What is peroxidose?
enzyme, will pull apart hydrogen peroxide to form water & oxygen.
The 4 biopolymers have a backbone of?
In chemical equations atoms are not what?
broken or destroyed
The first energy level can hold of maximum of how many electrons? Second? Third?
1st: two
2nd: eight
3rd: eighteen
Carbohydrates contain hydrogen & oxygen in a ratio of?
Substance composed of two or more atoms of different elements joined by a chemical bond.