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44 Cards in this Set

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What are autotrophs (producers)?
They use light energy from the sun to make their own food.
What are heterotrophs (consumers)?
They obtain energy from the food they consume.
What are some forms energy comes in?
light, heat, electricity
What is energy stored in?
Chemical bonds of compunds
What are some compounds that store energy?
ATP, NADH and FADH
What happens when bonds are broken?
Energy is released
What are some forms energy comes in?
light, heat, electricity
What is energy stored in?
Chemical bonds of compunds
What are some compounds that store energy?
ATP, NADH and FADH
What happens when bonds are broken?
Energy is released
What is the chief energy storing molecule made of?
Adenine, Ribose (A 5 carbon sugar) and three phosphates (key to storing and releasing energy)
What is ATP used for?
Mechanical Function, Active Transport and Breakdown/synthesis of large molecules.
Is ATP regenerated?
Yes
When a cell has ______ available it can store small amounts by adding a _______ to a group of ______ molecules producing _______
energy, phosphate, ADP, ATP
A cell can release _______ by breaking the bond between the second and third _______ changing the molecule to ______.
energy, phosphate, ADP
What is chemical respiration?
a series of chemical reactions when food molecules are broken down to release energy in the presence of oxygen.
What is aerobic?
requires the presence of oxygen.
What is anaerobic?
takes place without the presence of oxygen.
How many ATP molecules are produced with Aerobic Respiration?
36
How many ATP molecules are produced with Anaerobic Respiration?
2
Where does Glycloysis occur?
cytoplasm
What is the process of Glycloysis?
each glucose molecule is broken in half.
What are the products of Glycolysis?
2 molecules of Pyruvic Acid (3 carbon compund) and two ATP molecules.
Where does the Krebs cycle occur?
Mitochondria
What is the process in the Krebs cycle?
Pyruvic Acid is broken down.
What does the Krebs cycle produce?
Carbon Dixoide, NADH, 2 ATPs and FADH^2
Where does Electron Transport occur?
Mitochondria
What is the process of Electron Transport?
converts ADP to ATP
What does the electron transport produce?
32 ATPs
When does anaerobic respiration happen?
During glycolysis and is called fermantation.
What are the two types of fermantation?
Alcoholic fermantation and lactic acid fermantation.
What does alcoholic fermantation do?
converts/changes pyruvic acid to carbon dioxide and ethanol (alocohol).
corn+alcohol=____?
gas
What is Lactic Acid Fermantation?
converts Pyruvic acid to lactic acid.
What is produced by muscle cells during strenuous exercise?
Lactic Acid
Lactic Acid can build up in muscles and cause _______.
fatigue or soreness
Photosynthetic organisms get energy from
a. inorganic substances.
b. light.
c. autotrophs.
d. heterotrophs.
b. light.
ATP molecules
a. produce NADPH
b. contain five phosphate groups.
c. can both store energy and provide it for metabolic reactions.
d. help a plant produce carbon dioxide.
c. can both store energy and provide it for metabolic reactions.
In glycolysis,
a. aerobic processes occur.
b. four ATP molecules are produced
c. four ADP molecules are produced.
d. glucose is produced
b. four ATP molecules are produced
When this gas is available, aerobic respiration follows glycolysis
a. carbon dioxide
b. oxygen
c. hydrogen
d. water vapor
a. carbon dioxide
Aerobic respiration occurs in the __________ of eukaryotic cells.
mitochondria
Glycolysis is a biochemical pathway that breaks down a six-carbon glucose molecule to a two three-carbon ____________.
pyruvic ions
During aerobic respiration, pyruvate is first converted to acetyl-CoA, which enters the _________ _________.
Krebs Cycle
During celluar respiration, a cell produces most of its energy through _________ respiration.
Anaerobic