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33 Cards in this Set

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polyploidy
extra sets of chromosomes from accidents during cell division
autoploidy
individual that has more than 2 chromosome sets
allopolyploid
the contribution of 2 different species to a polyploid hybrid
punctuated equilibrium
species diverge in spurts of relatively rapid change--term derived from idea of long periods of stasis punctuated by episodes of speciation
exaptations
structures that evolve in one context, but become co-opted for another function
"evo-devo"
the interface b/w evolutionary Bio and the study of how organisms develop
allometric growth
the proportioning that helps give a body its specific form
heterochrony
evolution of morphology that arises by a modification in allometric growth
paedomorphosis
when the rate of reproductive development accelerates compared to somatic development and the sexually mature stage of a species retains its juvenile body features
homeotic
genes that determine basic features like wing placement or leg development.
species selection
production of a trend within a population by natural selection
Biological species concept
a population or group of populations whose members can interbreed with one another in nature to produce viable offspring, but not with other species.
reproductive isolation
intrinsic isolation of species breeding only within a species.
Prezygotic barriers
prevent mating or the fertilization of ova if members do attempt to mate
habitat isolation (Prezygotic barriers)
species that live in different habitats within the same area that rarely encounter each other if at all
behavioral isolation (prezygotic barriers)
signal signs to attract mates are particular to a species
temporal isolation (prezygotic barriers)
two species that breed during different times of day, seasons, or different years
mechanical isolation (prezygotic barriers)
differently evolved anatomy
gametic isolation (prezygotic barriers)
cells aren't evolved to handle unfamiliar environments like in the other species' body
postzygotic barriers
if a sperm cell does fertilize an ovum, the _________ _________ prevent the hybrid from developing into a viable adult.
reduced bybrid viability (postzygotic barriers)
when a hybrid zygote is formed, the incompatabilities may force it to abort
reduced hybrid fertility (postzygotic barriers)
if two species mate and have a viable offspring, they end up being completely or largely sterile.
hybrid breakdown (postzygotic barriers)
the first cross-mate can be successful, but the following generations are feeble or sterile
ecological species concept
defines a species in terms of its ecological niche; the set of environmental resources a species uses.
pluralist species concept
(similar to pluralism in gov.) imp. factors for cohesion vary
the biological, ecological and pluralistic species concepts are all _________?
"explanatory" concepts
morphological species concept
characterizes species in terms of a unique set of structural features
geneolocial species concept
defines a species as a set of organisms with a unique genetic history
two modes of speciation:
allopatric speciation and sympatric speciation
sympatric speciation
takes place in geographically overlapping populations (here biological factors, like nonrandom mating, can reduce gene flow)
allopatric speciation
takes place in populations with geographically separate ranges; gene flow is initially interrupted or reduced b/c they are in separate space.
speciation
when a species, after evolving separately, cannot produce offspring together once reunited
adaptive radiation
evolution of many diversly adapted speciesfrom a common ancestor