Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/104

Click to flip

104 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The human eye has about 6 million _____________ cells.
(cone)
The area of the eye responsible for the central and sharpest vision is known as the ____________
(fovea).
The main function of the _______________ is to support the eye.
(vitreous humor)
The development of cone cells allowed for organisms to acquire better information during the _____________ hours.
(sunlight or daylight)
Most nocturnal animals lack ______________ vision because there is no need for it at night.
(color)
Images that come from our eyes are nothing more than a set of ____________.
(dots)
To obtain a sharp image within the entire visual field our eyes constantly ____________ the entire image.
(scan)
The inner layer of the cortex is called ______________ because of its light colored
appearance.
(white matter).
The _____________cortex is where the sight information is processed.
(visual)
The brain is able to filter out visual information through a process called ___________________.
(subliminal perception)
People who suffer from blind sight have lost the ability to process ____________________
(incoming visual data).
_______________ can occur because there are separate pathways in the brain used for visual perception.
(Blind sight)
Visual neglect is a neurological disorder where patients have difficulty in visualizing objects in their visual fields because the ______________ lobe of the brain has been damaged.
(parietal)
______________ syndrome is a psychiatric disorder in which the affected person imagines that someone close to them has been replaced by an imposter.
(Capgras´)
Perceptions can be influenced by our _________________ state and ______________ condition.
(psychological; physical).
To recall a list of unrelated items some people use a _____________ to create an association between the meaningful and meaningless information.
(mnemonic device)
_________ memory is a type of declarative memory that uses sensation and emotion, which is usually a more effective than semantic memory.
(Episodic)
Short term memory lasts ______________ while long term memory can last ______________.
(minutes to days; months to years)
An increase in the firing rate and magnitude of cortical neurons is otherwise known as ____________
(LTP or long term potentiation)
Storage of long tem memory is based upon a distribution model where information about an object is stored in different regions of the _______________.
(cortex)
Veteran taxi cab drivers in London have an larger ________________ than drivers just starting out.
(hippocampus)
_________ memory, a type of declarative memory, is generally more important for academic success, whereas: __________ memory is strongly associated with creativity.
(Semantic; episodic)
The _________________ region of the brain is important for procedural memory and when neurons within this brain region die as a result of Parkinson’s disease.
(basal ganglia)
The _____________ is involved in visual/spatial memory and recent studies have demonstrated that this brain region can actually grow depending upon usage.
(hippocampus)
Elephants are well-known for their memory capabilities and can locate waterholes several hundred miles away with complete accuracy, which demonstrates their _______________memory.
(visual/spatial).
Dr. Egas Moniz in 1936 developed a procedure to treat severe mental illness, known as ______________, where he removed a significant portion of the frontal lobe .
(lobotomy)
Development of the ___________ lobe is the last step in human brain development, where the neural circuitry is not fully formed until adulthood.
(frontal)
The human brain is ____________ by nature, suggesting that it evolved by adding onto existing parts of animal brains over millions of years.
(modular)
Long-term memory is stored in the _______________.
(cerebral cortex)
After witnessing the inhuman treatment of the mentally ill, _____________, a school teacher, was instrumental in lobbying congress to construct federal and state mental hospitals.
(Dorothea Dix)
_______________ therapy, where an electrical current is passed through the brain and acts as a reset mechanism, is still used today to treat mental patients who fail to respond to all other treatments.
(electoconvulsion)
In the 1950’s, _________________ therapy was used to induce a hypoglycemic state ultimately causing damage to the brain, resulting in behavioral modification.
(insulin shock)
Mental illnesses are quite diverse, however the basic pathological mechanism is the same, where _______________ become unable to communicate with each other.
(neurons)
______________ is a type of mental illness where the patient suffers from severe mood swings of extreme highs and extreme lows.
(manic depression)
________________ has become a last resort for treating people with severe depression.
(ECT or electroconvulsion therapy)
During a manic depression low episode, the production of _______________ is deficient.
(serotonin)
_______________ , a class of drugs, were developed to prevent the removal of serotonin in the synapse.
(SSRIs).
Prozac is an SSRI that is used to treat depression, by preventing the removal of serotonin from the synapse, in turn _____________the concentration of serotonin in the brain.
(increasing)
Manic depression has a ______________ basis, where often times many family members will suffer from this disorder.
(genetic)
In the early 1900’s Dr. _________________ observed that some of his patients had progressive memory loss before their deaths. For his research into this phenomenon the disorder was accordingly named after him.
(Alzheimer)
Dr. Alzheimer hypothesized that mental illness had a _____________ cause, which was contrary to the prevailing psychiatric theories that mental illness was purely_____________.
(physical; psychological)
Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by _______________ loss, which is attributed to cell death in the brain.
(memory)
_____________ Alzheimer’s disease has been linked to a mutation of the APP gene on chromosome 21, where symptoms will usually start to occur before the age of 50.
(Early onset)
The brains of Alzheimer’s patients have characteristic _______________ plaques and _____________, which will prevent neural transmission and eventually cause cell death.
(amyloid, protein fibrils)
Methamphetamine can be produced from ________________, which is a main ingredient in cold medicines.
(pseudoephedrine)
Heroin is derived from _____________ and is a widely abused substance around the world.
(opium or poppy seeds)
Researchers realize that to cure and prevent substance abuse, they must first understand how the __________________ mechanism in the brain is responsible for the reinforcing properties of drugs.
(reward)
Electrical stimulation of the neurons in the _______________ will produce sensations of pleasure, which are similar to those sensations that are elicited by food or sex.
(nucleus accumbens).
The natural function of endorphins is to ________________________.
(reduce physical pain)
_____________ and endorphins bind to the same receptors in the brain.
(Morphine)
The most well known function of ______________, a neurotransmitter, is the production of pleasure, which is associated with hunger or sexual desire.
(dopamine)
The _____________ is the target brain area of both cocaine and amphetamines.
(VTA)
Cocaine and amphetamine both ______________ dopamine levels in the synaptic clefts.
(increase).
The neurological process of falling in love takes place primarily in the ________ system of the brain.
(limbic)
_____________ is the brain chemical involved with maintaining long term relationships or providing parental care.
(Oxytocin)
The brain slices of the monogamous prairie voles differ from that of their cousin species the montane voles in that the brains of the prairie voles have abundant levels of ____________
(oxytocin).
Dopamine is important in maintaining motor control and a reduction in dopamine production may result in____________.
(Parkinson’s disease)
Brain scans of children with ADHD show that there is a _____________ in activity in the neural pathways that are activated by dopamine.
(decrease)
Methlyphenidate, trade name Ritalin, increases dopamine activity by _____________ the dopamine transporters at the synaptic cleft.
(blocking)
Our aggression, feelings of insecurity, resentment and other personality traits are tied to ____________________ thoughts.
(subconscious)
Our mind is the result of the sum of the _____________ and ________________
(conscious, subconscious)
When a person becomes excited, dopamine and norepinephrine are released into the synaptic clefts, and ______________ is secreted into the same area to counter the actions of the 2 neurotransmitters.
(serotonin)
If a person’s brain produces _____________ amounts serotonin, the neuronal excitation cannot be controlled.
(small)
Prozac or fluoxetine works by blocking the _________________.
(serotonin reuptake transporters)
Patients who suffer clinical depression have a shortage of _____________ in their synaptic clefts.
(serotonin)
If you block the uptake of serotonin, the concentration of serotonin in the synapse will ____________.
(increase)
The illegal drug ___________ was made famous in the 1960’s and it causes hallucinations by mimicking the action of serotonin.
(LSD)
Psilocin, the chemical found in hallucinogenic mushrooms, will enter the _____________ of the brain and bind to serotonin receptors.
(thalamus)
The ________________ cortex contains a map of the entire body and after a person has undergone amputation of a limb, the region that represents that limb no longer receives any information.
(somatosensory)
In the case of David Garabedian, it was thought that the insecticide was responsible for his aggressive behavior. The insecticide blocks the enzyme acetylcholinesterase which leads to hyperactivation of the ______________ neurons.
(hypothalamus)
During an emotional event, the hypothalamus neurons will release _________________ which will in turn initiates the fight or flight response.
(acetylcholine)
Sandy, a troubled teen, attacked and stabbed a coworker. Her defense was that she contained too few _______________ receptors in the brain, thus she was unable to control her aggression.
(progesterone)
In the condition known as ________________, seizures of any type will repeatedly occur unprovoked.
(epilepsy)
_____________ lobe seizures can elicit religious or mystical experiences.
(Temporal)
Most scientists do not believe that the theory of _________ is wrong, because of the vast substantiating evidence that has been collected over the past 150 years.
(evolution)
Without a good understanding of ________, it is not possible to become an educated student in biology.
(evolution)
The mental capacity of __________ seem to be equivalent to that of a 5-year-old human child.
(orangutans)
Because Koko (a lowland gorilla) can use______________ to communicate her feelings, thoughts, and desires, we now have unequivocal evidence of the biological continuum between humans and the great apes.
(American Sign Language)
Evidence have established that approximately _________ years ago, the great apes split into two branches.
(14 million)
___________ are our closest relatives, and our ancestors have evolved separately to give rise to our present forms.
(Chimpanzees)
Chimpanzee and early human societies were male-dominated, which is also called a _______ society.
(patrilocal)
One of Jane Goodall’s first discoveries was that chimpanzees can fashion sticks to fish termites out from a termite nest. This observation shook the scientific world, because at that time, it was universally accepted that ______ use was a unique human trait.
(tool)
In a series of experiments involving the creation of a scale model of a life-sized room, it has been shown that chimpanzees can demonstrate ________ understanding.
(conceptual)
Chimpanzee and human societies use __________ to achieve a single objective, such as hunting for monkeys.
(cooperation)
It is estimated that at about 120,000 years ago, the entire population of Homo sapiens had decreased to less than 10,000 individuals which would have led to a decrease in genetic variation. This phenomenon is known as a genetic ________.
(bottleneck)
Research by Allan Wilson and his co-workers concluded that all human mitochondrial DNA can be traced back to one woman, the Mitochondrial Eve, who had lived in Africa about ________ to _________ years ago.
(120,000 to 150,000)
The mitochondria DNA in each individual comes only from the ________.
(mother)
When you compare the genomes of any two persons from any part of the world, their DNA sequences are _____% identical.
(99.9)
One hypothesis to account for the disappearance of Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis is known as the ___________ model, which states that modern humans contributed to the extinction of local species by out-competing them.
(Replacement or Out-of-Africa)
The ________ theory describes how the universe was formed about 13.7 billion years ago.
(Big Bang)
The amount of oxygen in our current atmosphere is a result of billions of years of photosynthesis by ___________.
(cynanobacteria)
Three basic characteristics of life include the abilities to use energy, ______, and _______.
(reproduce, evolve)
All matter in the universe, including the matter in your body, comes from the inside of ______.
(stars)
The fact that all living organisms, from simple bacteria to human beings, use the same ____________ , points to the commonality of life on Earth.
(genetic code)
One of the hypotheses for the Cambrian explosion was an increase in the Earth’s _______ concentration, which promoted the evolution or larger body forms.
(oxygen)
__________ _________ is the universal mechanism to insure individual uniqueness.
(Sexual reproduction).
Humans are nothing more than a collection of molecules composed of hydrogen, ____________, and ___________, yet we are one of the most complex creatures on Earth.
(oxygen, carbon: any order)
The protein, which acts like cellular “glue” to hold cells together, is called _________. This protein was first used by the group of animals known scientifically as ________ .
(collagen, Porifera)
To coordinate the motion of muscles, the cnidarians a simple network of _______ that allow the muscle fibers to communicate using a combination of electrical impulses and chemical signals.
(nerve cells)
In Lewis Carroll’s Through the Looking-Glass, . Alice asked the ________ why they did not seem to be going anywhere during their race. This scene is a good analogy for the Evolutionary Arms race, in which neither participant can get anywhere, but must keep evolving in order to just keep up.
(Red Queen)
Scientists have shown that at some point in evolution, ___________ cells took up residence in eukaryotic cells to become the first organelles through a process know as ______________.
(prokaryotes; endosymbiosis)
Even though we are one of the most complex organisms on the planet, less than ____ percent of the human genome is used to encode functional proteins.
2
Scientists have found that there are a small group of genes known as the ______ genes which are responsible for directing the body pattern formation in all animals.
(homeobox)
A brain’s complexity results mainly from the types and numbers of _________ that each nerve cell has with other nerve cells.
(connections)