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88 Cards in this Set

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chromosomes are comprised of?
60% protein 35 DNA 5 RNA
histones
proteins that give the dna something to wrap around
diploid number is
2N =46
haploid
1N - 23
meiosis
when diploid becomes haploid… sex cells
somatic cells are
body cells and are mitosis
phases of mitosis are
ipmat
mitosis interphase
the phase where the cell isnt dividing. Period of cell growth
G1
happens in mitosis… cell is nondividing, incease in cell size, increases enzyme required for DNA synthesis
S phase
this is where DNA and centrioles replicate
G2
increase in protein synthesis
mitosis - prophase
nuclear membrane breaks apart, chromosomes are visible, spindle fibers start forming, centrioles move to each side of the cell, spindle fibers form and attach to centromere
mitosis metaphase -
chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
mitosis anaphase
centromere break apart and spindle fibers pull sister chromatids to opposite sides
mitosos- telophase
cleavage forms and cytokenesis begins
cytokenesis
division of cytoplasm. Pinches the cell in two-- producing daugher cells 2
what is the chemical formula for photosynthesis
6C02 + 12H20 --->light energy---> C6H1206 + 6O2 + 6H20 (carbon dioxide and water plus light energy ends in glucose carbon dioxide and water
What is the chemical formula for cellular respiration
602 + C6H1206 -----> 38 ATP+ 6C02 + 6H20
stoma
opening
light reactions require
water, solar energy, ADP + P to produce ATP, NADP+ to produce NADPH
chemiosmosis
the diffusion of ions across the membranes
C3 plants
oats, wheat, rice
examples of C4 plants
corn and sugarcane - photosynthesis takes place in the budle sheath cells
Where are the choloroplasts in C4 plants
in their bundle sheath cells
metabolism
the sum of all chemical reactions that go on in living cells
energy metabolism
includes all of the reactions which the body obtains ande spends the energy from food
anabolic reactions
small molecules + large (requires ATP) "up" takes energy
catabolic reactions
large molecules are broken down to smaller ones .. Breaks bonds which usually releases energy
ATP
adenine triphosphate a high energy compound
aerobic
requires 02
anaerobic
does not require 02
when do you need ATP
whenever youre making something
glycolysis happens where?
in the cytosol
TCA cycle happens where
matrix of the mitochondria
Electron Transport happens where
across the inner membrane of the mitochondria
Oxidative Phosphorylation
ATP - matrix of the mitochondria
Glucose's composition
glucose is a 6 Carbon sugar, and requires ADP+P and 2 ATP in order to break it down into 2 sets of 3 Carbons
Transcription
the process where the genetic code on the DNA is transcribed to mRNA. (happens before translation) - DNA unwinds and RNA is created to match the nucleotides ATGC-AUGC
exons
coding region of a gene (mRNA portion that leaves the nuclesu)
introns
the non-coding segments that stay in the nucleus and are recycled
translation
happens in MRNA - at the ribosomes
triplet
three nucleotides in a row on DNA
codon
three nucleotides on the messenger rna
anticodon
TRNA
germ line cells
sex cells
mitosis occurs in…
somatic cells
karyotypes
the chromosome images in an orderly array
homologous chromosomes
a pair of chromosomes each resembling each other in shape and size
males sex chromosomes
XY
female sex chromosomes
XX
autosomes
a chromosome not directly involved in determining the sex of an organism
gametes have how many sets of chromosomes
23
what are differences between mitosis and meiosis
mitosis: has crossing over, takes place in somatic cells, starts with a diploid and ends with a diploid, ends with 2 genetically identical cells, homologuos chromosomes don’t paid, undergoes only one set of phases meiosis: has crossing over, takes place in germ-line cells, starts with diploid and ends with haploid, ends with 4 genetically different cells, 2 sets of division phases, homologous chromosomes pair
genes
a sequence of DNA nucleotides that code for a specific protein chain
traits
constitute the physical, biochemical and physiological make up of every cell in the body
phenotyp
organisms appearance, what you can see or measure
genotype
specific alleles that an individual inherits from their parents
alleles
a single trait is governed by combining alternative forms of genes… B and b
homozygous recessive
bb
heterozygous
Bb
homozygous dominant
BB
Brown eyes are dominant over blue
simple inheritance
an autosomal trait- the gene is located on many of the chromosomes
sex linked inhertiance
the gene for that trait is located on the X chromosome
XhXh
hemopheliac female
XhX
normal female (but a carrier)
XhY
hemopheliac male
alleles of blood type A
AA, Ai
alleles of blood type B
BB, Bi
alleles of blood type O
ii
alleles of blood type AB
AB
Downs Syndrome
three copies of chromosome 21
Edwards syndrome
three copies of chromosome 18
Aerobic Processes are…
Krebs Cycle (also called the Citric Acid cycle or the TCA cycle
Where in the cell does Calvin Cycle take place?
Across the thylakoid membrane
During photosynthsis, where do H+ accumulate in order to travel through specific channels during chemiosmosis
thylakoid space
where in the cell does glycolysis take place
cytosol
mendels law of segregation
units of inheritance exist in pairs,.. In the formation of sex cells, the pairs separate and ends that each gamate has one kind of each
monosomy aka turners syndrome
45 chromosomes - one X chromosome is missing
trisomy XXX -
superfemale -- when an extra X chromosome is present
Klinefelters = XXY
occurs when there is an extra X chomromosome in the precense of at Y
supermale
condition occurs when an extra chromosome Y is present
trisomy 21 - down's syndrome
condition occurs when an extra chromosome 21 is present
stages of meiosis are?
interphase, prophase 1, metaphase 1, anaphase 1, telophase 1 and cytokenesis, then prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, and telophase 2
prohase 1
homologous chromosomes pair up, and cross over.
metaphase 1
microtubules attach to chromosome and chromosomes are positioned to move to opposite sides of the cell
anapahase 1
sister chromatids migrate as pairs toward oppsite ends
telophase 1
two haploid cells form, and chromosomes are still double