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27 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Amino acid
make up protein
Anticodon
a sequence of three bases found on tRNA. Each tRNA carries only one anticodon
Cancer
when mutations change the genes that control cell growth and specialization, this may result-uncontrolled, abnormal cell division.
Carcinogen
an agent that causes or tends to cause cancer
Codon
three-base section of mRNA. Most carry a code for a specific amino acid.
Deletion
occurs when a chromosome breaks and a piece of the chromosome is lost.
Duplication
occurs when a part of a chromosome breaks off and is incorporated into its homologous chromosome.
Eukaryote
an organism whose cells have a nucleus surrounded by a nuclear membrane.
Frameshift mutation
the deletion or addition of nucleotides that disrupts codons.
Inversion
when part of a chromosome breaks off, turns around, and reattaches in the reverse order.
Jumping gene
Barbara McClintock sutdied kernel color in corn and revealed that some genes "jump" from one location to another.
Mutagen
a factor in the environment that can cause mutations in DNA.
Gene mutation
errors that occur within individual genes in a chromosome-can involve a single nucleotide or they can affect sections of DNA that include many nucleotides.
Oncogene
a gene that causes a cell to become cancerous.
Chromosomal mutation
changes in the structure of a chromosome-four types-deletion, duplication, translocation, and inversion.
Mutation
a random change in the sequence of nucleotides in DNA.
Point mutation
a change that occurs in only one nucleotide.
Prokaryote
an organism whose cells do not contain a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles.
Promoter
a section of DNA that serves as the binding site for the enzyme RNA polymerase near the digestive enzyme genes.
Protein synthesis
the process by which an organism's genotype (genetic makeup) is translated into its phenotype (traits).
Repressor
a protein that binds to DNA, turning off the genes that code for the digestive enzymes (step 1).
Transcription
the process of transferring information from a strand of DNA to a strand of RNA.
Translation
the formation of an amino chain from the information provided by mRNA.
Translocation
a chromosome part breaks off and attaches to a different, nohomologous chromosome.
(DNA) A- G-
T C
(mRNA) A- G-
U C
process
DNA->mRNA->tRNA->amino acid