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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Endocrine Gland
Secretes its products directly into the bloodstream

Ex: Thyroid/Immuno Glands
A chemical messenger secreted by a part of the body for a metabolic process
Exocrine Gland
Secretes its products through ducts

Ex: Sweat Gland/Salivary Glands
The 2 Types of hormones and differences
Steroids - Fat soluble, can penetrate cell membranes
Have receptors on cytoplasm

Polypeptides - Cannot penetrate cell membranes,
Have receptors on cell membrane
Lock and Key Fit
One Hormone, One Receptor
G proteins

Where did that name come from
Switching proteins, turns things on or off

They are called G proteins because they are powered by GTP
Adenylate Cyclase
A CAMP second messenger

Changes ATP to CAMP
Function of Polypeptide Hormones (2)
Maintains Homeostasis - Growth, BMR, Body Temp, BP, Salt water balance, through second messenger

Triggers Transcription - Production of new cells
Function of Steroid Hormones(1)
Also tied in with Transcription
Pars Nervosa
Neurons that fills up Posterior Pituitary

Also another name for Posterior Pituitary
Difference between Post and Anterior Pituitary
Post is filled up with Neurons

Anterior has no neurons. Hypothalamus controls Anterior Pituitary through Strong capillary connection.
Releasing factors that grant permission to release a hormone
Inhibitory factor that shuts off the release of a hormone.
Hormones produced by Posterior Pituitary and their function (2)
ADH - Anti Diuretic Hormone, Increases Kidney re-absorbtion of water.

Oxytocin - Starts Uterary Contraction for Childbirth
What is Thyroxine made of; made from; and functions.
Made of Thyrosine and Iodine

Produced from the Thyroid Gland

Affects Mitochondria to generate heat
What is the difference between T3 and T4?
T3 has 3 Iodine
T4 has 4 Iodine
Why do most commercial Salt contain Iodine?
Because Iodine is not available everywhere
What does low Iodine cause ___?
Enlargment of the Tyroid Gland, A.K.A Goiter
A decrease in Thyroid Gland activity means ____?
No Hormone Production
Hypothyroid in young children
Cretin - Mental Retardation
Physical Exhastion/ High BMR
Graves Disease
Eyes bulge out
Production of antibodies against yourself
Layers of the Adrenal Gland
Function of Adrenal Cortex
Production of Cortisone controlled by Pituitary

Aldosterone - Controlled by Kidney
Function of Medulla
Production of Adrenalin - Controlled by sympathetic nervous system
Function of Cortisone (3)
1. Stress Hormone that shifts body to fat Metabolism, leaving glucose for Nervous system, AKA Glucose -Sparing effect.

2. Acts to reduce inflammation, swelling

3. Increases permeability of capillaries to water
Hormone which feeds back to Hypothalamus to shut off Growth Hormone
PTH, Produced in_____ , Function
Parathyroid hormone produced in the Parathyroid Gland

Raises Blood Calcium Level
Calcitonin produced in _____, Function
Produced by C cells of Thyroid Gland,

Lowers Blood Calcium level
Calcium Ion Set Point
Too High? Too Low?
Normal point of Calcium Concentration

Too high - Realease of Calcitonin by C cells

Too Low - Release of PTH by The Parathyroid
Bone OsteoBlasts
Take Calcium out of Blood and deposits into Bone
Bone OsteoClasts
Take Calcium from bone and Puts back into Blood Stream
Effects of PTH (2)
Makes Osteoclasts release Calcium

Combined with Vitamin D produces Calcitrol, which makes small intestines absorb calcium
Islets of Langerhans
Pink dots on Pancreas

1)Beta Cells - Produce Insulin

2) Alpha cells - Produce Glucagon
Effects of Insulin (5)
1. Cause Liver to store Sugar as Glycogen

2. Cause cells to uptake sugar

3. Use Sugar for energy

4. Protein Synthesis

5. Growth (Receptor will cause transport proteins to bring in more sugar.
Cause of uncontrollable Cell division
Unauthorized crossing of G1 Gate.
Somatomedian Molecules are often called ______
Insulin Like Growth Factors
Diabetes Mellitus
Type I
Type II
I) Juvenile Diabetes - caused by Autoimmune, T-Cells attack B-Cells, resulting in no insulin production

II) Genetic, tied in with Over weight, Over 40, with family history. Caused by Disfunctioned or Disappeared Receptors. B cells give up production of ATP and UCP will appear in Mitochondria for heat.
Diabetes Insipidus
Lack of ADH, causing high Urine Volume
Services that Ocean provides for animal / Circulatory system (6)(*1)
Osmotic Pressure
Provide O2 take away CO2
Provide Food & take wastes

*** Circulatory system also fights infection
Open & Closed Circulatory Systems
Open - Blood is in Vessels & Body cavities

Closed - Blood is in Vessels 24/7
Three classes with Open Circulatory Systems - Which carries O2 in Blood?
Class Insecta/Phylum Arthropod
Class Crustacea - O2 in Blood
Class Arachnida
What is Phylum Annelida - What type of Circulation
Segmented round worms
-Closed Circulation
What are Class Teleosti, What type of circuit circulation?
Bony Fish
Single Circuit Circulation
How do Fish support Gills? What runs through them?
6 Bones support gills
Each gill arch has artery running through it.
Comes with the advent of Lungs
2x Circulation, Adaptation to land
Amphibian Lung provides ___ % and Skin provides ____ % of Oxygen needed?
Lung provides 40%
Skin Provides 60%
Phylogenic Tree
Teleosti - 2 Chamber 1x Circuit
Amphibia - 3 Chamber 2x Circuit
Reptile - 3 Chamber

Alligator, Bird, Mammal - 4 Chamber 2x Circuit
Structure of Arteries and Veins (3)
1. Outer Connective Tissue
2. Middle Smoth Muscle
3. Inner Simple squamous Epithelium. AKA Endothelium
SemiLunar Valve
Valves in middle of heart going out
Mitral Valve (Bicuspid)
Tricuspid valve
Mitral is valve of Left side
Tricuspid is valve of Right side of Heart
Chordae Tendonae
Support for Mitral (Bicuspid) & Tricuspid Valves
Cardiac Cycle (2)
Systole - Contraction

Diastole - Rest
Resting Point, Semilunar Closed
Mitra, Tricuspid Open
Heart fills Passively w/ Blood
Atrial Systole
Same as Diastasis, but rest of blood is pumped into Ventricle
Ventricular Systol
Bicuspid, Tricuspid Closed
Semilunar open, Blood is pumped through Aorta & Pulmonary Artery
Sino Atrial Node
Pace Maker of Heart beats at 110 beats / sec (slowed down by Acetylchonline)
Made of Specialized Heart Muscles Fibers
Atrial Ventricular Node
Recieves action potential from Sino Atrial Node

Sends signal to Bundle of His

Signals end with Purkinje Fibers
Vagus Nerve
Secretes Acetylcholine to Slow down Sino Atrial Node
Sympathetic Nervous System Secretes ______
Nora Epinephrine
Electro Cardiogram
P - Potential on SA node (Right before Atrial Systole)

QRS - Action Potential on Ventricles (QRS just before Ventricular Systole)

T - Ventricle returning to resting potential
Works on endoplamic reticulum and Smooth Muscle to open calcium gates (releases Calcium)