Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/105

Click to flip

105 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Simple sugars, Single Sugars
MONOsacharrides
Complex sugars
two simple sugars
– linked by dehydration synthesis
– Glycoside linkage
DIsacharrides
starches, cellulose
strings of simple sugars
polysachraiddes
Linear and Ring
• Hydrated Carbon
• Chemical Formula:
– (CH2O)n
– C:H:O ratio 1:2:1
Water soluble
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Protein
Nucleic Acid
Carbs
Fruit Sugar
Fructose
Milk Sugar
Glactose
Glucluse
Most common sugar in carbs
fructose, Glactose, Gluclose?
All have how many carbons?
Linked how?
Simple sugars, building blocks for carbs , 6
Dehydration synthesis
gluclose + Fructose
Sucrose; refined sugar
60% of body made of?
17% made of?
15% made of?
Oxygen
Protein
Lipid
2% made of?
1% made of?
Nucleic
Carbs
Function of lipids
Store energy
Waterproofing
cell membranes
Hormones
3 kinds of lipids
oils/fats
phospholipids
steroids
chains,
C, H, O only
Fats
P + N groups
– Hydrophobic/Hydrophilic
Phospholipids
– Rings
steroids
3 FATTY ACIDS + GLYCEROL
Fats
Fats link by what?
Ester Linkage
“triglycerides”, long term energy storage
fats
Fatty acids w/ SINGLE BONDS:
Linear; unsaturated
Cs saturated w/ Hs
Floppy chains
Saturated
2 fatty acid chain “tails” + 1 phosphate-nitrogen “head”
Phospholipids
The head of a phospholipid is what?
Hydrophilic
Tail of a phospholipid is what
Hydrophobic
Found in membranes
Phospholipids
Ring structure
– Functional groups
Steroids
Hormones synthesized
from Cholesterol
steroids
stings of C + H
Hydrophobic
lipids
Insect Exoskeleton
• Cellulose + nitrogen group
chitin
Selective Permeable.
Large and Charged molecules move slowley
lipid bylayer
s the driving force behind the
exchange
diffusion
How is the plasma membrane formed
Hydrophilic heads from hydrogen bond with water molecules

Hydrophobic regions interact
Most substances outside of a cell are
polar and hydrophilic
The nonpolar hydrophobic center of the
lipid bilayer will not let
Hydrophilic polar substance through
Plasma membrane functions
Separte out from inside of cell

Reg exchange w/environment

Connect and comm. w/other cells
function of proteins
communication
allow movement
Membrane Proteins
Transport
Receptor
Recongnition
Move HYDROPHILIC
stuff
• CHANNEL proteins
• CARRIER proteins
Transpot proteins
Binds on outside of
cell
• Triggers response
inside
Receptor proteins
Glycoproteins
ID Tags
Attachment
Recognition proteins
CH20 + protein
Glycoproteins
Immune system
ID tags
– Nervous system
Attachment
With concentration gradient
– No energy cost
Passive transport
Against concentration gradient
– Needs energy
Active transport
Types of passive transport
Facilitaed, Osmosis, simple diffusion
Needs transport proteins
slower
facilitated diffusion
Unstable
– Carry Energy Within
Cell
– Have Extra Phosphate
Groups
– Not in Chains
Di/tri Phosphate
Nucleotides
– 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + sunlight -> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
Photosynthesis
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 -> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ENERGY
Glucose Metabolism (Complete)
i. 2 ATP molecules
ii. 2 NADH electron carriers
Glycolysis
anoxic
cytoplasm
Glycolysis
molecules of Pyruvate
d. energy components formed
molecules of Pyruvate
d. energy components formed
aerobic
b. Mitochondria
Cell respiration
H2O and CO2

i. 2 ATP molecules
ii. 8 NADH, 2 FADH
Cell respiration
ALL living beings
• In cytoplasm
• NO oxygen required
Glycolysis
Over all goal of Glycolysis
Get energy
break down gluclose
2 steps of Glycolysis
Gluslose activation
Energy harvest
Breakdown: fructose to 2 g3p

Energy release
2 G3P + 4 ADP + 2 NAD+ -> 2 pyruvate + 4 ATP + 2 NADH

Gain 2 ATP and 2 NADH
Engery Harvest
Activation:
– +2 ATP input

• Rearrangement:
– Glucose + 2 ATP -> Fructose 1,6-P
Activation
Electron carrier
Eventually turned into ATP
NADH
Aerobic
Oxygen
Anaerobic
No oxygen
Need more NAD+
– Have 2 NADH

Recycle NAD+ from NADH
Lactate Fermentation
2 Pyruvate + 2NADH -> 2 lactate + 2 NAD+
Lactate fermentation
2 Pyruvate + 2 NADH -> 2 ethanol + 2 CO2 + 2 NADH+
Alchohol fermentation
Follows glycolysis
• OXYGEN!!!
• Result: lots of ATP!
• In MITOCHONDRIA
Aerobic Respiration
AcetylCoA + ADP + 3 NAD+ +FAD ->
2 CO2 + ATP + 3 NADH + FADH2
Krebs Cycle
NET GAIN:
4 ATP + 10 NADH + FADH2
Aerobic respiration
How many ATP per glucose!
32-34
a. Circular DNA
b. Cell grows
c. Cell membrane separation
d. Fusion
a. Binary Fission
Function of Mitotic Cell Division
From fertilized egg to Newborn
b. Growth to adult
c. Maintains Tissues
Mitotic Division basis
Asexual reproduction
A single nuclear division
b. Two cellular Divisions
Sexual reproduction
Result-gametes
Meiotic Division
Discrete units of Linear DNA double helix.
Eukaryotic Chromosome
Characteristics-
1. Karyotype- shape,
2. Homologous Chromosomes-
Eukaryotic Chromosome
Notation for Chromosome #-
1. Diploid
2. Haploid
Eukaryotic Chromosome
Acquire Nutrients
2. Growth
3. Duplication of Chromosomes
Interphase
g1, s, g2
interphase
growth
G1
DNA replication
S phase
Cytoplasmic Division
1. Production of two daughter cells
Cytokinesis
Nuclear Division
1. Production of Two nuclei
Mitosis
2 parts of Mitotic Division
Cytokinesis and Mitosis
Condensation chromosomes
Microtubules of the Mitotic spindle
Migrate to the opposite sides
b. Microtubules radiate out
c. Spindle fibers
Prophase
Spindle grabsNuclear membrane
disintegrated.
• Sister chromatid
• Kinetochore-microtubules
attaches
Pro-metaphase
Chromosomes alignment
metaphase
Kinetochore- move along
2. Sister Chromatids
separate.
Anaphase
Spindle
Breakdown
2. Nuclear
membrane
3. Chromosomes
4. Nucleoli
Telophase
key to sexual reproduction
MEIOSIS:
1 copy each chromosome
Haploid
1 + 1 = 2 copies each chromosome
• Fusion during sexual reproduction=
diploid
Spindles form
– Sister chromatids attach
Prophase II
Sisters at middle
Metaphase II
Sisters pull apart
– One per end
Anaphase II
Nuclear envelopes
– Cytokinesis!
Telophase II
46 chromos
duplicate
• 46 Sister chromatids
– Sisters line Up at
middle
– One sister per end
– cytokinesis
Mitosis
46 chromos duplicate
• Sister chromatids
– :
• PAIRS line up at middle
• One PAIR per end
• Cytokinesis
– :
• 23 sister chromatids
• Sisters line up at middle
• One sister per end
• cytokinesis
Meosis
46 chromosomes/cell
• diploid
– 2 new cells
Mitosis
23 chromosomes/cell
• haploid
– 4 new cells
– Germ cells, gametes
Meoisis
sexual reproduction
Two nuclear divisions
Meoisis
Homologs pair up (23 different types)
• One homolog per new cell
• No interphase
Meiosis I
Sister chromatids in each homolog separate
• One sister per new cell
• Total: 23 chromosomes/cell (hapolid)
Meiosis II