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78 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the cell theory?
-al living things are composed of one or more cels
-smallest living things are single celles and cells are functional units in multicellular organisms
-colls come from pre-existing cells
What are the basic features of all cells?
-plasma membrane
-DNA as hereditary recipe
-cytoplasm
-obtain energy & nutrients from enviornment
-cells are small
What are the features of prokaryotic cells?
-smaller, 1-6um
-no membrane-bound organeles
-no nucleus
-DNA in circular loop
What are the features of eukaryotic cells?
-larger, 8-100um
-membrane-bound organelles
-nucleus
-DNA in linear chromosomes
ribosomes are made of...
RNA and protein
What does and endomembrane do?
-modifies proteins
-lipid production
-packaging
-shipping
Endoplasmic reticulum has ___ regions?
They are....
-2

-rough ER
-smooth ER
Rough ER produces...
protein
Smooth ER produces
lipids
The golgi complex...
-puts finishing touches on proteins
-packages finished material for shipment to final destination
The chloroplast's job...
converts sunlight to ATP & sugar through photosynthesis
What is energy?
the capacity to do work
Energy of movement...
kinetic energy
examples of kinetic energy...
light
heat
electricity
stored energy...
potential energy
Types of potential energy...
chemical energy
positional energy
1st law of thermodynamics...
conservation of energy
2nd law of thermodynamics...
when converted from one form of energy to another, useful energy decreases
a reactant is...
the starting material
the result of the reaction is..
the product
requires molecules of CO2 gas to start...
photosynthesis
requires glucose or other organic molecules to start...
cell respiration
requires O2 to complete...
cell respiration
does cell respiration require H2O to start?
no
requires light energy to start...
photosynthesis
produces glucose molecules...
photosynthesis
produces molecules of CO2
cell respiration
produces molecules of O2
photosynthesis
produces ATP energy from food energy...
cell respiration
humans and other animals do this...
cell respiration
decomposers and detritus feeders do this...
cell respiration
algae and other green plants do this...
cell respiration and photosynthesis
ADP is...
low energy
ATP is...
high energy
in ATP synthesis...
energy is stored
the sum of all chemical reactions that occur within a single cell...
metabolism
seriers of reactions in a sequence...
metabolic pathway
5 properties of biological reactions...
1-speed up reactions
2-speed up reactions that would occur anyway, but slower
3-not consumed in the reactions
4-enzymes are very specific
5-enzyme activity is regulated
what is the formula for photosynthesis?
CO2 + H2O + (energy from sun)-->C6H12O6 + O2
who does photosynthesis?
plants
multicellular algae
unicellular protist
cyanobacteria
purple sulfur bacteria
chlorophyll absorbs _____________ light.
violet, blue and red
accessory pigment..
carotenoids
key photosynthetic pigment...
chlorophyll
carotenoids absorb _______ light
blue and green
what can proceed without light?
light independent reactions
molecules or chlorophyll are located in the membranes of sacs...
thylakoids
Light-dependent photosynthetic reactions produce
ATP, NADPH, oxygen gas
C4 photosynthesis is at an advantage when the weather is
hot and dry
During glycolysis, what provides the initial energy to break down glucose?
ATP
When oxygen is present ___.
most eukaryotic cells utilize aerobic respiration
Oxygen is necessary for cellular respiration because oxygen ___.
combines with electrons from the electron transport chain and H+ to form water
The light-dependent reactions occur in the stroma. T/F
False
Glucose is synthesized in the stroma. T/F
True
In the light-dependent reactions, chlorophyll captures sunlight energy and directly uses it to make glucose. T/F
False
The electron transport chains are part of the light-depedent process of photosynthesis. T/F
True
Aerobic (cellular) respiration uses oxygen and produces carbon dioxide. T/F
True
Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of a cell. T/F
True
Lactic acid (lactate) fermentation occurs when oxygen is abundant in muscle cells. T/F
False
When both pyruvic acid molecules produced during glycolysis are completely broken down, six carbon dioxide molecules are released. T/F
True
In exergonic chemical reactions ___.
reactants have more energy than products
The statement "energy is neither created nor destroyed" is part of ___.
the first law of thermodynamics
The active site of an enzyme ___.
is the part of the enzyme where its substrate can fit
An allosteric site on an enzyme is ___.
is separate from the active site
Which of the following statements about catalysts is false?
Catalysts increase activation energy requirements.
What causes us to heat up and sweat when exercising?
As we break down sugar, much of the energy released is heat.
Reactions that release energy are endergonic T/F
False
Enzymes increase the activation energy needed for chemical reactions to occur. T/F
False
Conversion of ATP to ADP releases energy T/F
True
Glucose is...
- a simple sugar (C6H12O6)
-atoms held together by covalent bonds
Fermentation pathways don't use
oxygen
what produces less ATP than aerobic respiration?
fermentation
2 types of fermentation
-lactate fermentaion
-alcoholic fermentaion
Acetyl CoA formation...
pyruvate --> Acetyl CoA
Krebs Cycle...
production of NADH, FADH2, & ATP
production of many ATP
Electron Transport Chain
Electron transport chain occurs in the
inner membrane mitochondrial membrane
A lot of ATP are made during
chemiosmosis
ETC requires the presence of..
oxygen