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78 Cards in this Set

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the impact of a single gene on more than one characteristic
pleiotropy
a molecule carrying DNA from more than one source
recombinant DNA (transgenic organism)
States that genes are located on chromosomes and that the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis and fertilization accounts for inheritance patterns.
chromosome theory of inheritance
the enzymes that make the covalent bonds between the nucleotides of a new DNA strand
DNA polymerases
the transfer of genetic info from DNA into an RNA molecule
transcription
the transfer of genetic info in the RNA into a protein
translation
small, circular DNA molecules that are separate from the much larger bacterial chromosome
bacterial plasmids
DNA carriers that move genes from one cell to another
vectors
a technique by which any segment of DNA can be amplified (cloned)
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
a method for sorting macromolecules - proteins or nucleic acids - primarily on the basis of their electrical charge and length
gel electrophoresis
human chromosomes contain how many genes?
3.2 billion nucleotide pairs of DNA and 30,000 to 40,000 genes
Fertilization of one plant by pollen from a different plant
cross-fertilization
varieties for which self-fertilization produced offspring all identical to the parent
true-breeds
the offspring of two different true-breeding varieties
hybrids
pairs of alleles segregate (separate) during gamete formation; the fusion of gametes at fertilization creates allele pairs again
Mendel's principle of segregation
when an orgaism has a pair of identical alleles for a gene
homozygous
when an organism has two different alleles for a gene
heterozygous
each pair of alleles segregates independently of the other pairs during gamete formation
Mendel's principle of independent assortment
chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes
autosomes
hybrids that have an appearance in between the phenotypes of the two parents
incomplete dominance
How does codominance differ from incomplete dominance?
codominance is the expression of both alleles; incomplete dominance the expression of one intermediate trait
The DNA-containing structures that carry the organism's genes.
chromosomes
A complete set of an organism's genes. (Humans have around 35,000 genes.) Located on chromosomes in the cell nucleus.
genome
A combination of DNA and protein molecules.
chromatin
Consists of DNA wound around a protein core of eight histone molecules.
nucleosome
Each chromosome consists of two copies of these before beginning division.
sister chromatids
A typical body cell, has 46 chromosomes in humans.
somatic cell
The two chromosomes of a matching pair.
homologous chromosomes
All body cells in an organism contain two homologous sets of chromosomes.
diploid organism
A cell with a single chromosome set.
haploid cell
egg and sperm cells
gametes
An exchange of genetic material - pieces of chromosomes - between homologous chromosomes, occurs during the first prophase of meiosis.
crossing over
These chromosome are called _______ because they result from genetic recombination, the production of gene combinations different from those carried by the parental chromosomes.
recombinant (chromosomes)
trisomy 21
Down's syndrome
The members of a chromosome pair fail to separate at anaphase.
nondisjunction
XXY
Klinefelter syndrome (male)
XO
Turner syndrome (female)
Organism that has more than two sets of homologous chromosomes in each somatic cell.
polyploid
the organs that produce gametes
gonads
Cells with the potential to give rise to every type of cell in the body.
stem cells
In "The Origin of Species," (1859) Charles Darwin proposed that:
1. Modern species descended from ancestral species (descent with modification) and 2. natural selection is the mechanism of evolution.
The idea that a population of organisms can change over the generations if individuals having certain heritable traits leave more offspring than other individuals.
natural selection
How old is the earth?
3.5 billion years old
The comparison of body structures between different species.
comparative anatomy
similarity due to common ancestry
homology
the comparison of structures that appear during the development of different organisms
comparative embryology
consists of all alleles in all the individuals making ap a population
gene pool
What produces genetic variation?
mutations and sexual recombination
a general formula for calculating the frequencies of genotypes in a gene pool from the frequencies of alleles, and vice versa
Hardy-Weinberg formula
A nonevolving population is in genetic equilibrium, also called
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
Evolution is a generation-to-generation change in a population's frequencies of alleles. Because this describes evolution on the smallest scale, it is sometimes referred to as ______
microevolution
a change in the gene pool of a small population due to chance
genetic drift
Genetic drift due to a drastic reduction in population size
the bottleneck effect
Genetic drift occurs when a few individuals colonize a new habitat. The smaller the colony, he less its genetic makeup will prepresent the gene pool of the larger population from which the colonists emigrated. Genetic drift in a new colony is called _____
the founder effect
Apopulation may gain or lose alleles by ____, or genetic exchange between two populations
gene flow
the contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation relative to the contributions of other individuals
Darwinian fitness
a change in life-forms noticeable enough to be evident in the fossil record
macroevolution
a population or group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed with one another in nature to produce fertile offspring
species
the origen of new species
speciation
domain > kingdom > phylum > class > order > family > genus > species
taxonomic hierarchy
both DNA and RNA are nucleic acids which consist of long chains (polymers) of units called
nucleotides
DNA and RNA nucleotides are joined by covalent bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the next. What is this called?
sugar-phosphate backbone
Each nucleotide of DNA or RNA consists of what three components?
a nitrogenous base, a sugar (deoxyribose, ribose), and a phosphate group
two polynucleotide strands of DNA
double helix
The genetic instructions for the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide chain are written in DNA and RNA as a series of three-base words called
codons
RNA nucleotides are linked by the transcription enzyme called
RNA polymerase
The nucleotide sequence that says "start transcribing" that the RNA polymerase attaches to is called
a promoter
Phase 1 of transcription; the attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoter and the start of RNA synthesis is called
initiation
phase 2 of transcription; the RNA grows longer and peels away from its DNA template, allowing the two separated DNA strands to come back together in the region already transcribed
elongation
phase 3 of transcription; the RNA polymerase reaches a special sequence of bases in the DNA template called a terminator.
termination
the sequence of bases in the DNA template that signals the end of transcription
terminator
RNA translation yields
a polypeptide of amino acids
what are the two types of mutations?
base substitutions and base insertions or deletions
Viruses that attack bacteria are called
bacteriophages, or phages
A reproduction cycle of a virus that uses the cell's machinery to produce copies of the virus. The cell lyses, or breaks open.
lytic cycle
A virus cycle; the virus DNA inserts by genetic recombination into the bacterium's DNA. The prophage DNA replicates along with the host cell DNA.
lysogenic cycle
Once inserted into the bacterial chromosome, the phage (virus) DNA is called a
prophage
The synthesis of DNA on an RNA template
reverse transcriptase