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70 Cards in this Set

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prokaryotic cells
small and simple
bacteria and archaea
lack membrane bound organelles (no nucleus)
they have a cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, DNA.
eukaryotic cells
larger and more complex
includes protists, fungi, plants, animals
nucleus
double membrane
RNA, proteins, ATP, and nucleotides need to get in and out.
chromosomes
made of DNA and protein, linear, only visible when condensed
ribosomes
found in the cytoplasm, site for RNA->protein (translation)
free or attached to rough ER
nucleolus
small dark spot in nucleus, coding for rRNA, proteins are assembled into ribosomes
plant cells
no flagellum, cell wall, chloroplasts, large central vacuole
what do animal cells have that plants don't?
centrosome and centriole
endomembrane system
structures involved in modifying and packaging up proteins for export
rough ER
sheets of membrane, stacks of flattened vesicles, ribosomes, proteins exporting or become embedded
smooth ER
tubular besicles, no ribosomes, lipid synthesis
golgi apparatus
flattened vesicles, communicates with ER through vesicles, create lysosomes, may recieve addition of carbohydrate
lysosomes
destructive enzymes come from pinching off the golgi, digest and recycle molecules
in what genetic disease is a lysosomal enzyme defective?
Tay Sach's disease.
mitochondria
site of aerobic respiration=oxidation of food to make ATP
double membrane, cristae, inner membrane (matrix)
cellular respiration
in the mitochondria
glycolysis - cytoplasm
krebs cycle - matrix
ETC - inner membrane
ATP
chlorplasts
site of photosynthesis=capture energy from sun, synthesis ATP and organic molecules
double membrane, thylakoids, grana, stroma
photosynthesis
light dependent rxn- grana
light independent rxn- stroma
glucose
similarities between mitochondria and chloroplasts
double membrane, large surface area of membrane, membrane enclosed spaces, DNA, ribosomes, ability to divide.
microfilaments
made of actin (form beads, strung in long chains and weave)
structural support and movement
microvilli
microtubules
made of tubulin (wound around)
support and movement
cilia and flagella (cross section 9+2)
basal bodies & centrioles- help organize cytoskeleton
do bacteria have microfilaments of microtubules?
no! prokaryotic cells have no cytoskeletal elements!
what are the most common elements of living things?
oxygen (water), carbon (organic molecules), hydrogen (water), nitrogen (proteins)
how many covalent bonds does H, O, N, and C form?
H-1
O-2
N-3
C-4
structure of water
polar (positive, hydrophilic) molecule
H side is slightly positive
O is slightly negative
covalent bonds hold O and H together
differences between hydrogen bonds and covalent bonds
hydrogen bonds not as strong,
hydrogen bonds are between molecules, covalent bonds are within water molcules
why are hydrogen bonds important even though they are weak?
cause water to stick together, gives water its properties, many hydrogen bonds have a strong effect
cohesion
allows water to rise, delivers from the roots to the top of a tree
surface tension
high surface tension molecules stick together so light things can walk on top of water
hydrophilic?
water-loving, polar molecules
sugar, salts, charged atoms
hydrogen bonds
hydrophobic?
do not dissolve in water
nonpolar- share electrons equally
organic molecules
molecules with a carbon skeleton
C's and H's bond with nonpolar covalent bonds to form hydrocarbons
where do we find hydrocarbons?
methane, ethane, propane- gasoline, vaseline, natural gas
covalent bond
hold O & H together in H20, sharing electrons
hydrogen bond
bonds between molecules of H20
what are the groups added to organic molecules?
functional groups
hydroxyl
alcohols, found in sugars, glycerol
-OH
carbonyl
acetone and sugars
C=O
carboxyl
organic acid
tends to give up H+
found in fatty acids and amino acids
C=O-OH
amino
amine, tends to pick up H+, basic
amino acids
H-N-H
phosphate
tend to give up at least one H+
O-O-P-OH-OH
sulfhydryl
found in a few amino acids
can bond together for protein structure
-SH
fats
triglycerides, classic lipids,
glycerol (hydroxyl group) + 3 fatty acids
dehydration synthesis
removes water to form polymers
hydrolysis
adds water to break bonds and form monomers
oil (liquid fats)
liquid at room temperature
unsaturated fatty acids (double bonds)
they cannot pack together tight enough to form a solid because the double bond causes a kink in their third fatty acid
solid fats
solid at room temperature
saturated fatty acids because they can pack together
most animal triglycerides are saturated.
phospholipids
a triglyceride with one fatty acid replaced by phosphate (negative) plus another positively charged group.
amphipathic?
phospholipids- they have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions.
phosphate group is hydrophilic (polar head), nonpolar hydrophobic tail
can act as emulsifiers
steroids
same basic complex ring structure
cholesterol, sex hormones
they contain a hydrophilic (polar) hydroxyl group
where does cholesterol come from?
food and family
HDL and LDL
good and bad cholesterol
high density lipoprotein
low density lipoproteins
HDL is good because it doesn't stick
total cholesterol: below 200
LDL: about 100
HDL: about 50
roles of proteins
enzymes, structure, transport,
made of small monomers linked together to form long polymers
what makes proteins?
animo acids, functional groups amino and hydroxyl, form peptide bonds
amphipathic
structure of proteins
primary - order of amino acids
secondary
secondary - alpha helix or beta pleated sheet
tertiary - twisting and folding
quaternary - more than one protein
carbohydrates
sugar, bread, pasta
server as energy stores, oxidize to release energy, serve as structural molecules, form parts of monomers of DNA, serve as identity tags
simple sugars
monosaccharides (CH2O)n
carbonyl group, different arrangements make different sugars
disaccharides
two simple sugars linked together, linked by dehydration reaction
polysaccharides
starch (plant storage), glycogen (animal storage)-alpha bonds (weak)
cellulose (plant cell walls), chitin (fungus cell walls)-beta bonds (strong)
carbohydrates are hydrophilic because...
they have many hydroxyls
lipid bilayer (fluid mosaic model)
fluid barrier at surface of cells
made of:
phospholipids- amphipathic
cholesterol- hydroxyl at surface (hydrophilic)
proteins- polar region exposed at surface
functions of proteins in the lipid bilayer
transport proteins (channels, carriers), enzymes, receptors, attachment to cytoskeleton
carbohydrates
chain of sugars, attached to other types of molecules, attached to lipids or proteins
involved in recognition of cells by other cells
lectins
proteins that read carbohydrate identity tags
simple diffusion
through a lipid bilayer (small nonpolar molecules)
facilitated diffusion
uses transport proteins
no ATP used, concentration gradient
this is how water enters and leaves the cell (osmosis)
osmosis
water moves from more free water (less solute) to less free water (more solute)
isotonic, hypotonic (less solute), hypertonic (more solute)
active transport
uses transport proteins, requires ATP, can cause substance to move against a concentration gradient
sodium potassium pump
endocyctosis
into cell
phagocytosis- cell eating
pinocytosis- cell drinking
exocytosis
out of the cell, used in secretion of digestive enzymes
gets into vesicle, attaches to membrane, dumps out