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65 Cards in this Set

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The ________ cells are those body cells that contain 46 chromosomes.
The ________ are the 22 pairs of chromosomes not associated with the X and Y chromosomes.
In Tay-Sachs disease, the individual is lacking an ____________ that is required to metabolize a fatty compound in the brain.
In the equation [possible combinations = 2n], n stand for _________ ____________.
(haploid number)
During meiosis I chromosomal ___________ can occur, which further adds to the level of gamete variation.
The Spanish flu killed over __________ people worldwide.
50 million
The surface of a virus is covered with two types of ____________ , abbreviated H and N.
The influenza virus differs from our cells in that it uses __________ instead of DNA as its genetic material.
Your roommate is curious why the avian flu is called H5N1. How would you explain what H5N1 means in terms of the influenza viral structure?
H5 is a form of the antigen Hemagglutinin, and N1 is a form of the antigen Neuraminidase
__________, __________ and __________ are the most common elements in the universe and in biological molecules.
Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Carbon.
Biological membranes are “fluid” structures which can contain proteins that sense the outside environment. Explain membrane proteins in this role using the influenza virus as an example.
Proteins can be located within cellular or viral membranes with portions of those proteins protruding outward into the surrounding environment. One such membrane protein in the influenza virus, hemagglutanin, can recognize surface membrane proteins of a host cell and then initiate the process of entering the cell, thus beginning infection.
Name the four major biological molecules used to make a virus. Three were discussed in detail in lecture. Give an example of how each of those three is used specifically in the influenza virus.
The four major biological molecules are lipids, nucleic acids, proteins and carbohydrates. Proteins are used in binding to host cells (hemagglutanin), lipids are used to make the membrane of the virus, RNA is used as the genetic material of the flu virus.
__________ is the process of making an RNA copy of a gene.
Describe the size of the human genome, how long it took to get fully sequenced and the approximate number of genes that were found. Was this number expected?
There are around 33,000 genes
they expected 100,000.
It took from 1990 - 2000 for the first draft to be complete. A more accurate draft in 2004.
Who discovered the structure of DNA and what form does DNA take?
Watson and Crick (1 pt) discovered that DNA has a double helix structure
All living organisms on Earth employ nucleic acids as the informational system to direct the reproduction of the next generation. Name the 4 nucleic bases and which bases are complementary.
A (adenine), T (thymine), G (guanine), and C (cytosine)
Complementary bases are Adenine and Thymine, Guanine and Cytosine
The first human pharmaceutical produced using genetic engineering was __________.
There is a ________% chance that you are consuming GM food when you eat processed foods.
75 Percent
The human genome consists of roughly __________ bases.
3 billion
How was genetic engineering used to produce insulin for diabetics?
Using restriction enzymes like Boyer and Cohen had done, people were able to cut the human insulin gene out of human DNA and insert that gene into the genome of bacteria (E. coli). Because of the commonality of life, the bacteria treated the gene as its own and produced human insulin which was then purified and sold for use by diabetics.
How is Bt corn different from regular corn and how is that difference beneficial to the plant?
Bt corn contains a toxin from bacteria known as the Bt toxin. The plant produces this toxin, which is lethal to some insect larvae, in its own tissues. When larvae feed on the corn plant, they ingest the toxin and die. This results in less damage to plants from the larvae and an increased yield in crop.
Describe how new genes are introduced into genetically engineered plants.
A bacterium which normally causes a tumor-like disease known as crown-gall in plants is used to introduce genes into plants. The bacteria cause the disease by inserting a piece of its DNA into the plant genome. Therefore, the genetic engineering of plants could be carried out by splicing a desirable foreign gene into the bacterium and them infecting the plant.
Explain to your roommate what type of cell your skin cell is. Explain how it divides and how many chromosomes are present in the nucleus.
A skin cell is a somatic cell. The somatic cells of the body would include all the cells with the exception of the sex cells or gametes. Somatic cells are diploid in chromosomal number and contain 46 chromosomes. Cell division of somatic cells would be through the process of mitosis.
What is the difference between mitosis and meiosis?
Mitosis is the replication of the somatic cells. During mitosis all 46 chromosomes are replicated and each daughter cell receives the complete set of 46 chromosomes. Meiosis is cell division for the formation of gametes. During meiosis the 46 chromosomes are copied and then divide twice. This produces daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes, 23.
Why is it important evolutionarily speaking the there is recombination of the genes in meiosis?
In all sexual reproducing species crossing over and Independent assortment provide genetic diversity found within a species. This is important because with without genetic diversity there is very little chance of a species adapting to the ever changing environmental conditions. Species with low genetic diversity have a high probability of going extinct if the environmental conditions change.
Explain the difference between identical and fraternal twins.
Identical twins are formed from 1 sperm fertilizing 1 egg. During fertilization the new cell begins to divide and the cells separate from each other producing two identical individuals. Fraternal twins are formed by the fertilization of two separate eggs by two separate sperm. This produces to different individuals at the same time. These individuals are no different than biological siblings.
Define "Gene"
Genes are the segments of DNA which cells transcribe into RNA and translate, at least in part, into proteins.
Define "Allele"
An allele is any one of a number of alternative forms of the same gene occupying a given locus (position) on a chromosome.
Define "Mutation"
A mistake in DNA, can be caused by all sorts of processes making mistakes.
Define "Homozygous"
When one has two identicle Alleles for one gene in their Genotype.
Define "Genotype"
The genotype is the specific genetic makeup, or DNA structure.
Define "Phenotype"
The phenotype of an individual organism is either its total physical appearance
Define "heterozygous"
When one has two different alleles for a gene in their genotype.
Define "autosomal trait"
A trait that is affected by the non-sex chromasomes.
Define "single gene disorders"
They are caused by a defect in a single gene. Tay-Sachs and Cystic Fibrosis.
Define "multifactoral polygenic disorders"
A disorder that is factored by multiple mutations of multiple genes. Asthma, Heart Disease and Autism
______________ disorders are caused by defective genes in the non-sex chromosomes.
Tay-Sachs disease and cystic fibrosis are inherited as ____________________ disorders.
Explain to your roommate what is wrong with a person with Tay-Sachs disease.
A genetica disorder which is caused by a lack of an enzyme that is required to metabolize a fatty compound in the brain. A mutation in the gene that encodes this enzyme results either in a faulty production or in a complete lack of this enzyme. Without the enzyme, these fatty compounds destroy brain cells, and it usually kills a newborn in less than 5 years.
Explain to your roommate what a multifactorial polygenic disorder is.
A multifactorial polygenic disorder involves multiple genes with mutations. These mutations do not cause the disease directly but predispose an individual to the disease. These mutations combined with lifestyle and environmental factors determine whether a disease emerges or not.
Insulin is produced by the __________ of the pancreas.
Beta Cells
__________ is the hormone that signals glucose uptake by body cells, thus reducing blood glucose levels.
__________ is the hormone that is involved in increasing the blood glucose levels.
Define "zygote"
When the Sperm fertilizes the egg. Both are Haploids, and combine together resulting in a Zygote.
Define "embryo"
The earliest stage of formation. Once the Zygote passes through the Fallopian Tube, and into the Uterus, it is now an Embryo
What is Blastulation?
This is the process creates a big ball of NOW DIFFERENCIATED cells from the zygote.
A big ball of cells the the zygote forms is called a _________. How many cells does that ball consist of.
Morula... 128
A child is born with a defective heart due to an error in gastrulation. This error had to have occurred in the ________.
After the egg is fertilized, the resulting cell is known as a(n) ________.
The correct developmental pathway of the fertilized egg is…________, _______, ________, ________.
Zygote to Morula to Blastula to Gastrula
A zygote undergoes several rounds of cell division, resulting in a ball of cells known as a __________.
A __________ is formed when the morula is transformed into a hallow ball of cells.
__________ is the process where cells of the blastocyst begin to flow inwards to the other side of the blastocyst, resulting in three distinct layers of cells.
Name the Outer Cell Layer, and what it forms
Name the Middle Cell Layer, and what it forms
Name the inner cell layer, and what it forms
ENDODERM - lungs
__________ genes are important for directing the differentiation and migration of cells in body pattern formation.
Homeobox Genes
What are the genes responsible for bilateral body plan development? What evidence suggests that these genes have been in use for 500 million year?
Homeobox Genes. These genes have survived from the earliest organisms (flat worms), to all of their decendents, even humans.
The operational sex ratio is a ratio between ____________ males to _________ females.
Sexualy receptive, Sexualy receptive.
Explain why there is male competition.
It is explained by our sperm... and how they all have 1 in 200 mil. chance of fertilizing the egg.
Explain to your roommate what the operational sex ratio is (OSR).
The ratio of sexual receptive woman to sexualy receptive men. Men are almost allways at an advantage, because they are allways producing sperm. Woman are only receptive 4-5 weeks a year, and only make less than a thousand in a lifetime, AND females aren't receptive when pregnant.
_________________ ________________ is a type of male competition where the males search for and mate with females as soon as they are sexually receptive.
Scramble Competition
The ibex is an example of what type of tactic of male competition? Explain.
Fighting for Mates... This type of male fights off other mates to be the 'strongest' and be able to take over a heard of females
Explain why the red-backed spider is an example of the mating gift tactic.
He gives himself up as the gift. She is ten times bigger than him, and in order to keep his line going, he must do it.
____________ ______________ is an category of male attraction strategies, where the male will have showy feathers or vibrant plumage which is used to attract females.
Ornamental Display