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69 Cards in this Set

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lower order plants
non-vascular
mainly aquatic
higher order plants
vascular
land
non-flagellated pollen
meristem
top growing portion of plant; small cells with large nuclei; rapid growth and cell division; undifferentiated cells
lateral meristem
produces girth
root apical meristem
has root cap
root cap
1) protective covering as root grows through soil
2) nutrient rich source with high density of cells
3) enzymes to breakdown soil
4) grown from L1 layer
5) can perceive gravity
6) new grows when old dies
L1
Protective covering of plant; forms epidermis (protoderm); bark or cuticle
1) store food (Starch) and water
2) provie support for plant organs
L2
bulk of plant (ground meristem)
L3
vascular system (must increase as girth increases)
root system
anchors plant, penetrates soil to absorb water and ions
shoot system
stems, leaves, nodes (leaves or branch location), internodes
guard cells (part of L1- dermal tissue)
flank stomata to open and close them
trichomes (part of L1- dermal tissue)
hairlike outgrowths;
1) trap air for insulation to regulate microclimate
2) prevent pathogens from landing on plant
root hairs (part of L1- dermal tissue)
tubular extensions of single epidermal cells; increases root's surface area
xylem
water-conducting tissue; wood made from accumulated secondary xylem; TRACHEIDS and VESSEL MEMBERS
Tracheids and vessel members (xylem)
grow and then die providing a hollow straw to move water
Phloem
principle food-conducting tissue (located towards outer parts of roots and stems); SIEVE-TUBE MEMBERS and SIEVE CELLS
sieve cells
not hollowed out
Zone of cell division (root)
apical meristem cells divide into protoderm, procambium, and ground meristem tissues
Zone of Elongation (root)
Roots lengthen b/c cells produced by priary meristems grow longer than wide (no cell division at this point)
Zone of Maturation
differentiate into specified cell types
Double Fertilization
one pollen nuclei fertilizes the egg (zygote-diploid) --> one pollen nuclei fertilizes the endosperm (triploid endosperm)
endosperm
food supply for embryo (triploid)
cotyledons
embryonic leaves (first access to photosynthesis); cotyledons are NOT derived from meristem (true leaves ARE)
first zygotic division
asymmetric --> one daughter cell w/dense cytoplasm will become embryo --> large daughter cell forms a suspensor cell (links embryo and nutrient tissue, signals where root will be)
seed coat
protects seed; formed from parent ovule cells; resistant to drought and other unfavorable conditions
importance of seeds
1)maintain dormancy until good conditions
2) max protection for young plant in most vulnerable stage
3) contain food supply until photosynthesis can occur
4) help w/dispersal
macronutrients
major components structural for optimal plant growth (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and sulfur)
micronutrients
mineral required in minute amounts for plant growth (iron, chlorine, copper, maganese, zinc, etc)
carbon
major component of organic molecules
oxygen
major component of organic molecules
hydrogen
major component of organic molecules
nirtogen
amino acids, proteins, nucleotides, nucleic acids, chlorophyll, coenzymes, enzymes
potassium
protein synthesis, operation of stomata
calcium
cell walls, membrane structure and permeability, activates some enzymes
magnesium
component of chlorophyll meleculel activates many enzymes
phosphorus
ADP and ATP, nucleic acids, phospholipids, several coenzymes
sulfur
components of some amino acids and proteins, coenzyme A
copper (micronutrient)
activator or component of certain enzymes
top soil
most roots found here; half occupied with spaces or pores (filled with air or water); helps give oxygen
cultivation
leaches soil --> crop rotation, fertilizers, and plowering under leftover plant material give back nutrients; nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium are the main items leached from soil (must come from soil, thus xylem carries)
nitrogen fixation
N2 -> N3 (ammonia) needed for amino acids -> converted by legumes or bacteria (plant provides protective environment)
nodule
root hair that traps bacteria and causes cell division with nitrogen-fixing bacteria within; L2 tissue
carnivorous plants
obtain nitrogen directly from other organisms
mycorrhizae
a symbiotic association btw fungi and the roots of a plant
parasitic plants
tap into vascular tissue of host plant for nutrients (instead of soil)
phytoremediation
process of removing contamination from soil or water using plants (release into air, degrade them into diff molecules, store them in structuarl tissue)
fungi attack
enter through stomata (L1), then grows into the L2 cells (ground cells are nutrient rich)
Plant Poison
chemical toxins (stops electron transport, blocking cellular respiration); stored in membrane-bound structures
allelopathy
chemical signal secreted by roots of one plant blocks germination of neighbors
co-evolved with animals
ACACIA trees provide ants with sugar in nectaries and ants provide predator protection
Pathogen-specific response
if R-gene recognize pathogen, hypersensitive response (rapid cell death around site -> pathogen cant grow b/c no nutrients at disposal), then systematic acquired response (allows plant to respond quickly if attacked again)
wound responses
volatile compound secreted attacks wasps, killing catepillar
systemic acquired resistance
all cells go on alert when attacked -> entire field can know that there is a pathogen
prokaryotes
bacteria and archaea
eukaryotes
protists and animals
sponges (parazoa)
lack specialized tissues (do have specialized cells); three cell layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm--flagellated draws water through numerous pores; sexual and fragmentation for reproduction
radiata
1) epidermis and nervous system develop from ectoderm
2)gastrodermis develops from endodermis
3) 2 groups: cnidaria and ctenophora
Cnidaria
RADIATA- nearly all marine -carnivorous -polyps and medusae -internal extracelluar digestion -(ex: hydroids, jellyfish, sea anemones, and coral)
Ctenophora
RADIATA comb jellies -eight comb-like plates of fused cilia propel through water
Flatworms
bilateral symmetry; acoelomates (digestive tract only internal cavity); absorb food through body walls; hermaphroditic; 3 cell layers; nerve core
ribbon worms
bilateral acoelomate simplest animals that possess a complete digestive system (mouth and anus)
psuedocoelomates
internal body cavity: serves as hydrostatic skeleton (gains rigidity from fluid pressure); lack defined circulatory system;
roundworms (nematods)
PSUEDOCOELOMATES sexual reproduction; unsegmented worms
rotifers
PSUEDOCOELOMATES bilaterally symetrical, aquatic
cycliophora
PSUEDOCOELOMATES
Mollusks
coelomates (allows animal to increase size and capartmentalize functions); gastropoda, bivalvia, cephalopoda; bilateral; shells; open circ (except cephalopods); external fertilization;
mantle
occurs in mollusks: secretes shell
Annelids
(worms); segmenation: repeated, specialized, and connections; hydrostatic skeleton; closed circ system