Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the differences between eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells?
- later arrivals, "true" cells
- have more membranes so more organels/ cell structures
-e.g ER, nuclear membrane, mitochondria
Prokaryotic cells
- much older bacterial cells 3.5 billion years ago
- no ER, no mitochondria, no nuclear membrane, no nucleas, have DNA
What is the efficiency difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
prokaryotes are bacteria they extract energy from glucose at 3 % efficiency,
when eukaryotes use mitochondria to extract glucose there is a 60% efficiency
What gases were present in the primitive atmosphere?
methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), water (H20), carbon (H2)
What are the two types of cell division and where do they occur?
1. mitosis- occurs in somatic tissue (bodily tissue not reproductive)
2. meiosis- occurs in germinal tissue (reproductive tissue)
Compare the amounts of cells dividing and cells dividing in babys, middle aged, and elderly people
babys- cells dividing more than dieing
middle aged- cells dividing and dieing are equal
elderly- cells dieing more than dividing
Why do cells mitose? Why do they divide?
repair, growth, replacement
what are the phases of mitosis?
interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
What is interphase
normal state of cell, visible nucleas, chromotin exists, longest phase (90% of cells life)
What is prophase
- first phase
- nucleoli are dissapearing
-chromosomes appear
- eventually nuclear membrane is gone
- chromosomes are elongating and thicken
- spindle fibers form
What happens in metaphase
-chromosomes line up on imaginary equator
- chromosomes are most visible during this stage so its best time for chromosomal testing
- spindle fibers attatch to centromere
What happens in anaphase
- spindle fibers pull apart
What happens in telophase
- final stage
- cell plate appears
reverse of prophase
- chromosomes less visible
- nuclear membrane/ nucleoli appear
spindle fibers break down
- expane to form a cell wall and seperate two cells
What is different about mitosis in animal cells tahn plant
telophase a cleavage furrow forms and there is no cell wall forming because animals dont have one
How long does mitosis last
it depends on the organism but most cells it takes a few hours
What happens during chromosomal testing on amniotic fluid
extract 100 cc of amniotic fuid
- get fetal skin cells (called amniosentisis)
-induce sychonous mitosis
- arrest @ metaphase spread out chromosomes
- stain chromosomes and look in phomicrograph to study
- arrange from alrge to small Karyotype
Properties of the leaf
- autotrophic (produces its own food)
- anabolic
What is the equation for phothosynthesis?
6C02+12H20 --> C6H12O6+6O2+6H20
What is the electromagnetic spectrum and which colors are most effective at causing photosynthesis?
Red, Orange, yellow, green, indigo, violet = white light
- white light is most effective ut within red and violet - if you absorb red and violet you get green
What are the 3 phases of photosynthesis and what are their products
1. photolysis - 2H+ and 2e-
2. light dependent reactions- ATP and NADPH2
3. light independent reactions- 1 PGAL or 1/2 glucose
What is the difference between photosynthesis and cell respiration
- produces glucose using energy
- occurs in chloroplasts
- produces ATP using glucose
-occurs in mitochondria
What are the 3 phases of cellular respiration? And in what kind of cells do they occur and where
1. glycolisis-occurs in cytoplasm- both Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes
2. citric acid cycle- occurs in mitochondria- Eukaryotes
3. electron transport system- occurs in mitochondria Eukaryotes
What does glycolisis give us?
- not high efficiency
- quick energy without oxygen
- prepares glucose for mitochondria
- provides intermediates (lactic acid, fat)
What product does 1 glucose give us in cellular respiration
38 ATP
What are the 7 criteria of life
respoce to stimuli
cellular organization
WHat are the types of vacuoles
1. food - has solid material in it
2. contractile- rid of excess water and metabolic waste
3. central - occurs in center of plant cells stores water, pigments, wasteproducts and food
What are the types of plastids
1. chloroplast - photosynthetic organellles, produce food/nutrients e.g leaves
2. chromoplasts- have all the pigments (flowers, fruits)
3. leucoplasts- no pigments store foods
Function of centriole
found in animal cells only
establish the plane of cell division
Function of mitochondria
takes glucose and converts it to energy (called oxidative fosturilation)
Function and location of DNA
in nucleas
directs the process of turining amino acids into proteins
Endoplasmic reticulum types and functions
smooth ER - without ribosomes, synthesize lipids (fats), breaksdown fatty acids, detoxifies, manufactures golgi bodies
rough ER- small ribosomes on the surface
What is the function of ribosomes
located on rough ER
proteins are synthesized here
in order to synthesisze you need amino acids which you get from eating protein and digesting it
Fucntion of golgi bodies
manufactured in smooth ER
makes a final modification to the proteins made in ribosomes
assembles lipids
manufacture vesicles and secrete them out of the cell membrane
produce lysosomes
Function of lysosomes
structure that breaks down in (animal cell)
contains hydrolitic enzymes that use water to breakdown organic molecules for mitochondria like old organels (suicide bags)
What are enzymes
proteins that control chemical reactions in the cell
What is a nucleolus?
spherical object in nucleas that makes RNA molecules (you can have 2 or 3 inside the nucleas)