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77 Cards in this Set

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incomplete digestive system
~found in organisms more complex than flatworms
~commonly found in invertebrates
~one opening for food and waste
~saclike gut system
bile
digests fats
How are glucose and most amino acids absorbed across the gut lining?
by active transport
peristalsis
involuntary muscular contractions that occur in the esophagus
number of muscle layers in the stomach
3
What is the order that food travels through the digestive system?
mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus
length of the human small intestine
13-23 ft
contents of saliva
mucins, water, amylase
components of the integumentary system
skin, hair, nails, glands
What type of cells make up the mammary gland?
alveoli cells
What is one use of fingernails?
fin manipulation
What are the two components of hair?
a bulb and a shaft
functions of the integumentary system
~protecting from infection
~providing vitamin D
~maintaining homeostasis in regards to temperature
keratin
helps maintain skin's cohesiveness and toughness
integumentary exchange
a method of respiration mostly used in aquatic invertebrates
purpose of sweat glands
controlls temperature
nerve net
loose mesh of nerve cells associated with epithelial tissue
function of the cerebellum
deals with posture and reflexes
function of the cerebrum
deals with thoughts and behavior
meninges
three protective coverings of the spinal cord
pre-motor cortex
controls judgements and thinking about body movements
tracts
signals that travel as bundles of neurons between brain and spinal cord
purposes of the kidney
A) maintain pH balance in kidney tissue
B) secrete neurotransmitters
C) filter proteins in blood
Loop of Henle
maintains pH balance in kidney tissue
ADH
promotes water conservation
components of the glomerulus
Bowman's capsule and glomerular capillaries
Which hormones influence reabsorption of water and solutes concerning urine formation?
a. ADH
b. Aldosterone
c. Angiotension
Intersitial fluid is saltiest near the _____________.
Loop of Henle
What are physiological processes where the Mammalian body loses water?
a. Urinary excretion
b. Evaporation from the lungs and skin
c. Sweating (by Mammals that sweat)
d. Elimination, in feces
Glomerulonephritis
~a type of renal failure
~a type of autoimmune disorder in the kidney
~potentially fatal
Which part of the neuron receives the signal?
axon
What type of neuron does the brain contain?
interneuron
What type of cell does the myelin sheath consist of?
Schwann cells
motor neuron
neuron that controls muscle cells
What part of the neuron is the axon?
the transmitter arm that extends from the body
synaptic vesicles
house neurotransmitters`
Neurotransmitters diffuse across a
chemical synapse
The potassium in the nerve cell (is)
negatively charged
tendon
connects bone to muscle
ATP for muscle contraction can be formed by what?
~aerobic respiration
~glycolysis
~breaking down phosphate
smallest structure in a muscle cell
myofibril
What is the basic unit of contraction?
sarcomere
What does muscle contraction require?
~action potential arrival
~calcium ions
~ATP
How much weight of the body do muscles take up?
a little more than half
the belly (body) of a muscle
the central red contractile part
consistency of tendons
fibrous tissue
effects of steroids in females
A) increased risk of heart attacks and strokes
B) failure to ovulate
C) induced growth of facial hair
The seesaw pattern of muscle operation around a joint is exemplified in which example?
raising and lowering of the forearm
What do mechanoreceptors detect?
movement, pressure, tension
The hammer, anvil, and stirrup are located inside the:
middle ear
basic taste receptors
A) Sugar and acids.
B) Alkaloids.
C) Salts.
What is an example of the appendicular portion of the human skeleton?
pelvic girdle
What is an example of the axial portion of the human skeleton?
rib cage and vertebral column
invertebral disks
shock pads and flex points
When you are a baby, you have ________.
less bones than you have now
What is a degenerative condition associated with the wearing away of the protective caps of cartilage covering the bone-ends?
rheumatoid arthritis
About how many bones are in the human body?
206
largest bone in the human body
femur
nasal cavity
chamber in which sounds resonate
lung cancer causes
~smoking
~chemical exposure
When the diaphragm contracts, one...
inhales
Which animal has air sacs that attach to their lungs?
birds
In fish, when the blood flows in the opposite direction of the oxygen-rich water from the environment, it is called:
countercurrent flow
What type of respiratory system do insects have?
tracheal
About what percent of blood is plasma?
54%
Arterial blood is
oxygen rich
Of the two ventricles and two atria, which one pumps out oxygen rich blood to the body?
left ventricle
Which one of the following is the largest blood vessel?
arteries
A. Hypertension
B. Atherosclerosis
C. Arrhythmias
D. Acromegaly
Which is not a cardiovascular disease?
acromegaly
Where does Lymph from the body drain
thoracic duct, right lymphatic duct
What are the vessels bringing lymph to the lymph nodes called
afferent lymphatic vessels
What is the first stage of the lymph system?
venolymphatic stage
What is the last stage of the lymph system?
mammalian stage
What is the largest lymphoid organ?
spleen
Which of the following are functions of the lymphatic system?
~produces disease-fighting agents
~returns water and plasma proteins back to blood
Where are lymph nodes located
lymph vessels
What is the function of the lymph vascular system?
to return water and solutes to the blood