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20 Cards in this Set

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Fitness
The relative contribution that an individual makes to the gene pool to the next generation
3 Types of Mutations
Harmful- detrimental to the organism
Adaptive- causes the organism to gain some advantage that increases its ability to survive and reproduce
No Value-does nothing to either the organism or to make them mroe fit
Recurrent Mutation
A mutation that results in a trait that is genetically different from either parent, but is already present in the population
Novel Mutation
A mutation that results in a trait that is not already present in the population
Competition
Conflict that arises between individuals or groups in the process of acquiring limited resources
Limiting Resource
any factor(usually a nutrient) within an ecosystem that is in finite quantity and that is required by individuals in that ecosystem for survival
Competitive Exclusion Principal
"Two species with similar needs for the same limiting resources cannot coexist in the same place"
2 Types of Niches- Fundamental Niche
The resources(biotic and abiotic) that are theoretically available to an organism
2 Types of Niches- Realized Niche
The resources(biotic and abiotic) that are actually utilized by a given population
Niche
What the animal does to its community(job)
Habitat
Where it lives
2 Types of Competition-Interspecific
Competition between different species
2 Types of Competition- Intraspecific
Competition between same species
Process of Natural Selection
1. Competition results when more offspring are produced than can survive because resources are limited
2. Offspring that possess more beneficial characteristics are more likely to survive and pass on their genes
3. Because more fit individuals survive most often, populations will shift over time to accumulate more beneficaial characteristics
Selection Resources
Food, habitat, mates, predation, disease, climate, competition for resources (invasive species)
3 Types of Natural Selection- Stabilizing Selection
Encourages the average or status quo combination of traits; happens in environments where there is little change occuring
3 Types of Natural Selection- Directional Selection
Favors a specific combination of traits that were relatively rare in the original population; happens in environments where there is great change occuring or a species is moving into a new environment
3 Types of Natural Selection- Diversifying Selection
Favors traits on either end of the spectrum but not the middle; happens in environments where there is change but the new factors favor multiple variations, this often happens in a divergence of species
Sexual Dimorphism
A feature possessed by a single sex that increases reproductive fitness(generally in vertebrates); reproductive fitness can(but doesn't have to) detract significantly from the environmental fitness of an individual
Adaptive Radiation
Process of modification over time to fill a variety of niches