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50 Cards in this Set

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Asexual Reproduction
"the creation of new individuals whose genes come from one parent, without the fusion of egg & sperm"
Sexual Reproduction
"the creation of offspring by the fusion of haploid gametes to form a zygote, which is a diploid"
Asexual Reproduction Types- Fission
the splitting of a parent into two roughly equal sized offspring (common amoung invertebrates)
Asexual Reproduction Types- Budding
a new individual growing from and then splitting off from the parent; can remain attached or can detach (coral or hydra)
Asexual Reproduction Types- Gemmules
aggregates of several types of cells that are surrounded by a protective coating in sponges
Fragmentation and Regeneration
occurs when an adult is broken into pieces and these prieces grow into new adult organisms
Asexual Reproduction Advantages
-organisms are well adapted to an environment and maintain "best combination of traits for the currect situation"
-less of a chance to introduce detrimental traits into a gene pool
-no time to find and compete for mates (saves time and energy and can reproduce in isolation)
-produce large amount of offspring in short amount of time
Asexual Reproduction Environments that it occurs in
best suited to a stable environment and the "best traits can be copied"
Sexual Reproduction Advantages/Environment
-adds more variety to the population as a whole, the population is better situated to survive and prosper in a rapidly changing environment
Red Queen Hypothesis
a species must contunually evolve to survive in a world full of other evolving species
Somatic Cell
any cell that is not a sex cell
sex cells
egg or sperm; contain 23 chromosomes (22 autosomal and 1 sex chromosome)
Sex Chromosomes for Humans
Males-XY Females-XX
Autosome
all chromosomes that are not X or Y
Self-Pollination
fertilizing oneself
Cross-pollination
pollen of one flower to stigma of another
dominant trait
the trait that remained/expressed trait
recessive trait
the trait that was not expressed in the F1 generation
Allele
each copy of a factor or gene
Diploid
all somatic cells are diploids meaning that they have a full set of 46 chromosomes (2n)
Haploid
all sex cells are haploid meaning that they have a half set of 23 chromosomes (1n)
Fertilization
the fusion of two gametes after sexual intercourse (sperm and ovum)
Name of Fertilized diploid egg
Zygote
Genetics
the study of heredity
heredity
the transmission of traits from one generation to another
gene
a discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleic sequence in DNA (or RNA in some viruses)
Locus
a gene's specific location on a chromosome
Homologous chromosomes
alike chromosomes carrying genes for the same heritable characteristics
Centromere
the joining point of two sister chromatids
telomere
protective structure at end of chromosome (protects DNA when copied)
sister chromatids
replicated forms of a chromosome jointed together by the centromere eventually separated by mitosis or meiosis 2
character
a feature that can be inherited by offspring from a parent
trait
a variation of a character
Mendel's Laws- Law of Segregation
Alleles for a trait are then "recombined" at fertilization
Mendel's Laws- Law of Dominance
in a cross of parents that are pure for contrasting traits, only one form will appear in the next generation
Mendel's Laws- Law of Independent Assortment
"Alleles for different traits are distributed to sex cells (& offspring) independently of one another" Traits can be independent from other traits
expressed traits
the phenotype, what is seen
Incomplete Dominance
A blending of characters. No dominant or recessive traits.
Hardy-Weinberg equation
p^2+2pq+q^2=1
Artificial Selection
Human modification of species
sister chromatids
replicated forms of a chromosome jointed together by the centromere eventually separated by mitosis or meiosis 2
character
a feature that can be inherited by offspring from a parent
trait
a variation of a character
Mendel's Laws- Law of Segregation
Alleles for a trait are then "recombined" at fertilization
Mendel's Laws- Law of Dominance
in a cross of parents that are pure for contrasting traits, only one form will appear in the next generation
Mendel's Laws- Law of Independent Assortment
"Alleles for different traits are distributed to sex cells (& offspring) independently of one another" Traits can be independent from other traits
expressed traits
the phenotype, what is seen
Incomplete Dominance
A blending of characters. No dominant or recessive traits.
Hardy-Weinberg equation
p^2+2pq+q^2=1
Artificial Selection
Human modification of species